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1 2 3
“The Ironworks on Lawson’s Fork.” Just a mention of that phrase stirs the imagination of
serious historians and local history buffs across the state of South Carolina. It has been that way
for over one-hundred and fifty years. Volumes have been written about the ironworks.
One of South Carolina’s earliest and most revered historians, David Ramsay,
opined that
“The first iron works in South Carolina were erected in the upper country by Mr. Buffington
(Appendix A) in 1773. These were destroyed by the Tories in the revolutionary war . . .” These
innocent remarks—partly accurate and partly inaccurate—became the foundation for a building
chorus of unfortunate disinformation about the ironworks. Much, strangely, of what has been
written has been conjecture or speculation and, worse, clearly wrong—though extant
contemporary documents were, and always have been, available. It clearly appears errors were
recorded early and speculation passed as fact; and later writers picked them up, repeated them,
and quoted and cited each other as a basis of authority.
It has been stated the ironworks were built in 1773 by either Colonel William Wofford
(Appendix B) or Joseph Buffington,
5 6 7
depending on who you read. It has been stated that
Joseph Buffington lost the ironworks to Colonel William Wofford or that he lost them to the
state of South Carolina. No need here to continue to itemize other unfortunate errors. The basic
problem was and is that there was NOT just ONE ironworks. Original, extant, and compelling
contemporary documents from that era clearly reveal another and alternate version—they argue
persuasively and conclusively for the existence of TWO ironworks.

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There were, in fact, two ironworks with their own individual history. They existed nearly
side by side on the Lawson’s Fork Creek. One was destroyed in the Revolution (built by Colonel
William Wofford) and the other (built by Joseph Buffington) was just, apparently, abandoned.
In late 1700, the billowing clouds of revolution and probable violent separation from
England revealed a need for “iron” war products. South Carolina was without significant
ironworks. On November 28, 1775, the Second South Carolina Provincial Congress recognized
the need of ironworks and offered a bounty for who would first produce bar iron.
Grasping the
need for ironworks much earlier was a prominent South Carolina aristocrat, William Henry
(who also became a driving force in the South Carolina Provincial Congress.) He had
earlier seen the need and began serious efforts for ironworks before the Congress acted. These
two developments, actions of Drayton and the Congress, were the foundation for the “ironworks”
at Glendale, formerly known as Bivingsville. Let’s separately examine the history of each.
Before the Revolution, Joseph Buffington,
iron master, had come from Pennsylvania
and built an ironworks on Troublesome Creek in North Carolina to the east of Guilford
Courthouse. He sold it in 1772. On September 19, 1774, he ran an advertisement in the South
Carolina Gazette stating he lived on the South Fork of the Catawba River at High Shoals or, as
he stated, Great Falls in North Carolina and sought capital for an ironworks there. He stated he
had “lately” purchased the land and had built a saw mill and partially completed a grist mill. But,
more importantly, there was iron ore and water power, and he needed backers for an ironworks.
He found a backer in William Henry Drayton (Appendix C)—but NOT for the Catawba River.

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Drayton was a firebrand patriot and a mover and shaker in the infant patriot government
at Charleston. Drayton was interested in the area of Lawson’s Fork. In late summer 1775,
William Henry Drayton was in the area between the Broad and Saluda Rivers seeking support
from the inhabitants for the new government at Charleston. He was sent by the South Carolina
Provincial Government.
While in the area he visited “his” ironworks and “the people about
Lawson’s Fork,” according to a letter from a traveling companion by the name of William
Tennant (Appendix D) to Henry Laurens dated August 20, 1775.
On August 21, 1775, William Henry Drayton wrote the Council of Safety in Charleston
from Lawson’s Fork, reporting the inhabitants would form a militia within a week and that he
had finished the day with a “barbequed beef.”
There is also a journal entry by the Reverend
Oliver Hart
(Appendix E), who also traveled with Drayton, dated Monday, August 21, 1775, of
having met with Drayton and others at Captain Waford’s where a “beef was barbequed.”
On February 17, 1776, Joseph Buffington petitioned the Second Provincial Congress of
South Carolina for monetary assistance to COMPLETE (he stated in the petition he was over one
half complete and would finish building in two years) his ironworks on Lawson’s Fork Creek.
Buffington stated he had ALREADY incurred a debt to William Henry Drayton in excess of
2,000 pounds. The Congress assented and on March 23, 1776, awarded in excess of 6,300
pounds to Buffington and, surprisingly, 3,000 pounds to William Wofford who had joined the
petition. The assembly felt “the establishment of ANOTHER (my emphasis) ironwork will also
be of public utility.” It also stated the TWO (my emphasis) ironworks would not be entitled to
the premium previously offered and that Buffington would not stop the water, to the detriment of
16 17
Buffington had purchased fifty acres (Appendix F) from one James McIlroy for his
The same McIlroy sold the remainder of his 350 acre grant (Appendix G) to

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William Wofford on which Wofford built
. But, for whatever reason, Buffington did not build
on the fifty acres, though he thought he did. It was then thought he built on adjoining land of
William Wofford and Wofford later executed a deed pretty much disclaiming any interest in the
land on which Buffington had built the ironworks and necessary buildings.
Alas, it was later
discovered, the ironworks were not on Buffington’s or Wofford’s land, but on vacant, unclaimed
public land (though, apparently, another William Woffard seemed to be manipulating to get the
ironworks land).
A frustrated Legislature resolved the issue by having a new survey made which showed
Buffington’s ironworks on a 600-acre tract of public land and legislated title to Buffington on
payment of the loan. Title would be vested in Commissioners of the Treasury until the debt was
For whatever reason, on August 18 and 19, 1779, Joseph Buffington sold his ironworks
to William Henderson
22 23
(William Henderson [Appendix H] died January 29, 1788). The deed
included the 600 acres, 50 acres, and 1,000 acres.
Consideration was one-hundred-thousand
pounds South Carolina money. In less than a month, on September 4, 1779 William Henderson
petitioned the House of Representatives stating he had purchased the ironworks from Buffington
and needed 2,924 acres for trees for fuel. He admitted the Buffington debt was still due.
April 24, 1788, (nearly nine years after the purchase but only about three months after the death
of Henderson) an advertisement appeared in the Columbian Herald (Charleston) for a public
auction “CONTAINING (my emphasis) the well known and valuable ironworks formerly
Buffington’s . . .” It listed the total acreage to be offered as 4,574 acres.

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As noted before, Henderson died on January 29, 1788, and the property total acreage
tallies with the 50 acres, 600 acres, and 1,000 acres Henderson purchased from Buffington and
the land he had petitioned the Legislature for fuel (2,924 acres) totaled 4,574 acres.
Colonel William Wofford was also an iron master. He had been busily buying tracts of
land in this area located on various creeks and streams sometime before the Revolution. He had
joined with Joseph Buffington in the petition of February 17, 1776, and requested funds for his
own ironworks and was granted some 3,000 pounds.
27 28
There is no evidence he had started one
before this time on the Lawson’s Fork. The only evidence of building activity by William
Wofford on Lawson’s Fork was in July, 1776, and is reported in the Revolutionary War pension
application of Henry Pettit who said he was called upon to help build a fort on Lawson’s fork
between June and November, 1776, and it was called Wofford’s Fort.
Further, Joseph
Buffington himself claimed payment after the war for supplies for inhabitants and scouts in
Colonel Wofford’s fort on the appropriate date of July 4, 1776.
There is no mention I can find of Wofford’s Ironworks before 1780 in multitudes of
Revolutionary War pension applications (see extraordinary collection of Southern Campaign
Revolutionary War pension applications at The only references
before 1780 are Wofford’s Fort. There is, however, a pension application of George Davidson
who stated he was discharged from militia service in the summer of 1776 at Buffington’s
On October 23, 1779, William Wofford sold a three-quarter interest in his ironworks
located on a three-hundred-acre tract of land (along with several other tracts) to Simon Berwick
(murdered March 26, 1783), John Berwick
(died February 4, 1784; Appendix I), and Charles

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34 35 36 37
(died January 17, 1781; Appendix J). This was a legal probate estate nightmare
destined to hold things up many years. The consideration was seventy-thousand pounds South
Carolina money. Wofford reserved twenty acres to himself and his wife Mary for their life
outright and retained his one-quarter interest in all the land.
It is generally accepted (but no
known contemporary evidence to prove the date) his ironworks were destroyed in November
1781 by William Cunningham.
In March of 1780, William Wofford purchased land on Turkey Cove in North Carolina
and built a fort. Several Revolutionary War applications attest the building and use of the fort.
On November 24, 1786, William Wofford petitioned the North Carolina Assembly for assistance
in an ironworks in Turkey Cove. He referred to his lost ironworks destroyed by the enemy and
deaths of the Charleston businessmen.
40 41
Some fifty years later, a news paper article in The
Charleston Courier written in 1847 states that Wofford’s ironworks was never rebuilt.
On July 14, 1788, a newspaper advertisement appeared in the Columbian Herald selling a
portion of the John Berwick estate (John had a one-quarter interest in the ironworks and had
inherited his brother Simon’s one-quarter interest). This one-half interest was being sold by the
sheriff. The property description in the sheriff’s sale matches the description sold to the
Berwicks and Elliott. It also identified the ironworks on a 300-acre parcel on which “were”
erected ironworks built by William Woolford
In 1802 Governor John Drayton, son of William Henry Drayton, published A View of
South Carolina as Her Natural and Civil Concerns.
It was a survey on the condition of the
State. In Spartanburgh (sic.) District he only mentioned “. . . a set of ironworks on a smaller scale
. . .” operated on the middle Tyger River by the Hill brothers. He made no mention of Wofford’s.

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Of particular note, he made no mention of the ironworks his famous father financed—
Buffington’s. Even at this early date, “the ironworks” were fading into the mist of memory.
There were two separate ironworks with separate histories. Each was begun after 1773,
but Buffington’s was before 1776 and Wofford’s probably in 1776. One was located at the
former old Georgia Road through Lawson’s Fork Creek, the other downstream closer to
Glendale at the bridge (Appendices K, L, and M).
Buffington never “lost” the ironworks. He sold it. Wofford’s Ironworks was destroyed
and never rebuilt. Buffington’s fell into disuse. From deed descriptions and other sources it
appears Wofford’s Ironworks were at the old Georgia Road and Buffington’s Iron Works lower
down near the iron bridge.
It is known some ironwork activity took place at then Bivingsville during the Civil War.
In 1858 John Bomar of Bivingsville Mill rented the cupola furnace (not primarily designed to
extract iron from ore but to use pig iron for foundry work; Appendix N) to John Brooks and he
operated the furnace before and during the Civil War. Knives for the Confederacy were also
made. Brooks advertisements and mention of the bowie knives made at Bivingsville are in the
Carolina Spartan before and during the Civil War.
45 46 4748
Today, nearly 235 years after the beginning of construction, the mist of faulty memory
shrouding the ironworks begins to lift.

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Joseph Buffington
Joseph Buffington was a Quaker. He was born July 20, 1737, in Chester, Pennsylvania,
the well-known Quaker Colony of William Penn. His father died when he was five years old and
he later became an ironworker.
Joseph and Mary Aston Few married on August 1, 1759. Their first child, also Mary, was
born on January 1, 1760 in Chester, Pennsylvania. One month after her birth, on February 1,
1760, in South Carolina, the Cherokee Indians were terrorizing the frontier. Settlers fleeing the
Calhoun settlement to Tobler’s Fort were overtaken in a bog on Long Cane’s Creek. The reports
of dead and injured were mixed but it appears over 56 were killed and prisoners taken. The total
fleeing were some 100. Charleston newspapers reported that scalped and otherwise wounded but
living children were found in the woods for days. The Buffington’s must have heard of the
massacre, even in Pennsylvania, and little did they know they would one day live near the area.
Their future would ALSO include being caught up in Indian warfare; and, their seventh child
was to be born in Wofford’s Fort, Lawson’s Fork Creek in South Carolina. Another interesting
tidbit for Mary: she married one Thomas Gordon and reported that her first child-John Few
Gordon-was born at LIBERTY IRON WORKS on Lawson’s Fork in November, 1777. That was,
apparently, an early name for Buffington’s Iron Works.
Mary Aston Few’s father and mother drowned in a boating accident while sailing the
Delaware River on the 15
of November, 1762. Joseph Buffington was sailing with them but
survived. In a letter from Ignatius Few to another Mary Few (cousins) in May, 1837, Ignatius
Few wrote that there were dark suspicions that Joseph Buffington had caused their deaths.
Apparently the marriage of Joseph and Mary was clandestine. Based on contemporary evidence,
the suspicion did not seem well founded. However, Joseph was “cast out” by the Quakers in
1766. The cause is not known.
Being “cast out” is more than excommunication; it also means being “shunned.” A
person cast out is “persona non grata”; no one speaks to him or of him, and he does not exist in
the community. His social and business life is ended.
Joseph and Mary Buffington left Pennsylvania that year. They ended up in North
Carolina where Joseph built Speedwell Iron Works (Writer’s note: In history the Ironworks had
several designations i.e., Speedwell, Buffington’s, and Troublesome [after the creek]).
After the Battle of Guilford Courthouse on March 15, 1781, General Green and part of
his patriot army camped at the Ironworks. The Buffington’s fifth child, Hanna, was born at
Speedwell on May 13, 1767. (A source for some of the above is Ken Freeman, a great, great,
great, great, grandson of Joseph and Mary Buffington. Also, see Buffington and associated
family Bibles.)
Joseph Buffington left a mark of his presence wherever he went and whenever he left.
After leaving Speedwell around 1772-1773, he went to the Catawba River area. He was deep in
activity and construction on a fork of Catawba River when he placed his ad in Charles Town,
S.C., for backers for an ironworks. He left that project to come to the raw-edged frontier on
Lawson’s Fork, with the Indians, particularly the Cherokee, unhappy. At that time the Greenville
County line with Spartanburg County was the boundary with the Cherokees. He got here just in
time for the Indian War to begin. Sporadically, in the spring of 1776, there were Indian

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attacks on isolated and defenseless cabins. The claim is that they were to assist the British in
their failed attempt to take Charles Town that spring, by tying up supplies and keeping help from
going to the coast; and bringing any back countryman on the coast home. Doubtless also, a little
Indian revenge for grievances real or imagined. The Indian attacks in June and July amounted to
massacres of men, women and children in isolated areas by large numbers of Indians. No need to
itemize the gruesome way captives, including women and children (who made up most of the
captive) were mutilated. In the Spartanburg area, murdered families included the Hampton’s,
Hannon’s, Hite’s, and many others--too many to list. There was abject fear and panic. Everyone
“forted” themselves all along the frontier. On Lawson’s Fork it was Wofford’s Fort. It was
jammed. Elizabeth, Joseph and Mary’s seventh child, was born in Fort Wofford on July 20,
1776, during the height of Indian attacks. According to Joseph’s application after the war, they
would have been there about three weeks when the birth occurred.
During the Revolution, Joseph served in Roebuck’s regiment. After Joseph sold his
ironworks in 1779 to William Henderson, he bought some 550 acres from John Thomas, Esquire
and wife, Jane. The deed is dated February 28 and 29, 1780. (One survey of the 250 acres tract
says it was prepared for the sheriff sell to Alexander McKie. The other survey of 300 acres was
prepared for a Sheriff sell and shows the confluence of Kelso’s Creek with Fairforest Creek.
Duggin’s Branch is near.) We might assume this (and this is a pure assumption since John
Thomas owned an earlier grant on Fairforest Creek before he bought this 550 acres from Bullock
& Tillet) is the location of the attempt by Tory Lt. Col. John Moore to capture William Wofford,
John Thomas, Sr. and a store of gunpowder on February 6, 1779. Wofford was captured but John
Thomas, Sr. escaped. John Thomas’s daughter was married to Josiah Culbertson and he refused
to leave his wife and children. Thomas’s wife, Jane Thomas ,also refused to leave so Josiah, his
wife, his mother-in-law, his mother, and twelve year old brother-in-law William Thomas fought
off the Tories. Joseph also received some 640 acres from the state nearby. His survey of the 640
acres, dated July 5, 1784, shows “Cedar Spring” between the confluence of an unnamed branch
and Buffington’s Branch. These two become Kelsey (Kelso) Creek. This is the spot where the
ambush of the loyalist took place at the battle of Cedar Spring on July 12, 1780. The surprised
Loyalist fled to Gowen’s fort.
Joseph mortgaged all of the land to the state and lost it all. His two daughters also had
property mortgaged to the state (Matilda Buffington had 300 acres on Foster’s Branch-her survey
is dated July 8, 1784 and Phebe Buffington had 200 acres on Buffington’s Branch, her survey is
dated July 6, 1784) and each lost their property also. Joseph also owned the land where Cedar
Springs Church is today (Cedar Spring is capped off directly in front of the church across a small
road-it still pumps), and Cedar Spring School are located. He built a “mill” at the confluence of
Kelsey (Kelso) Creek and Fairforest. It is hard to believe that he did not at least have a bloomery
also on the Fairforest.
In 1785 Joseph was made coroner for Spartanburg County. He was involved in many
lawsuits as plaintiff and defendant as the records of Spartanburg County and Tryon County
reflect. Tryon County, N.C. at that time extended through Laurens County. The boundary was
settled in 1772. Even then, on the ancient map of Spartanburg, we find roads leading to
Buffington’s. Joseph made his mark everywhere. Even in Georgia. The family concentrated at
one time in Warren County and near counties, Georgia. Church records, militia beat records, tax
records indicate Joseph Buffington, Mary Buffington, Samuel Buffington, Thomas Friend, Fanny
Buffington Friend, James Wood, Caroline Matilda Buffington Wood, the Gordans, etc., were
located in or near Warren County.

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Joseph is reported to have died c. 1790s. It must have been Georgia. He has left a legacy.
Much of his land is now in Camp Croft State Park. You can stand at the confluence of
Kelso Creek and Fairforest Creek today, within a stone’s throw of the home of John Thomas
(Appendix O), and imagine the sounds of a battle for independence when loyalist Lt. Col. John
Moore and his band of Tories attacked the Thomas home on February 6, 1779. Perhaps someone
fell—wounded or dead—where you stand.
(Note: There is a caveat to the oft repeated account of the attack on the John Thomas
Home on Fairforest Creek. The account previously given is one that has passed down in family
traditions and from other writers throughout the long span of time since the event. Participants in
the event, however, give another version. In his Revolutionary War Pension Application
(S16354), Josiah Culbertson, one of the two main protagonists, stated he was doing the shooting
and his mother-in-law, Jane Black Thomas, was “running” bullets. He stated the incident
occurred in the spring of 1780 while the “British besieged Charleston.” The Whigs assigned to
protect the gunpowder retreated. Tory Col. Moore--with 150 men--attacked the house.
Culbertson and the efforts of his mother-in-law caused the Tories to retreat “leaving himself, his
mother-in-law and the ammunition safe.” He does not mention his wife (Martha Thomas), his
mother, or brother-in-law (William Thomas). On September 18, 1832, Job Hammond, gave a
supporting affidavit to Culberton’s claim for the pension and stated that the defense of the
Thomas home was “well known and talked of and great praise awarded the declarant (sic.).”
(The “declarant” being Culbertson.)
Matthew Patton in his pension application (S18153) stated that he received word from
Col. Thomas’s daughter “Letty Thomas”--she having been sent by Col. Thomas--that Col.
Moore was on the way to the Thomas home. Patton gathered all the men he could and went to
the defense of the Thomas home. The Tories, as they approached, killed a black slave belonging
to Col. Thomas, and Patton and Samuel Clouney were “running” bullets. That Mrs. Thomas
urged them all to “fly” for their lives, and they did--all but Isaiah (sic.) Culbertson. That they had
left Culbertson in the house upstairs and Culbertson began a fire on the Tories. But, Matthew
said the event occurred in February, 1779. He also thought there were about 200 Tories.
There are others who give an account of the incident, but they were not participants.
Patrick O’Kelley, in his exhaustive and extraordinary work entitled “Nothing But Blood and
Slaughter” in Volume One at page 249, reports that Col. William Wofford, who had been made a
prisoner of Col. Moore sometimes about the attack on the Thomas home, was set free in
February, 1779--after the battle of Kettle Creek. This would seem to put the incident of the
Thomas home attack in February, 1779. Could Josiah have been mistaken as to time frame--
relying on memory nearly 50 years after the event! You decide!)

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William Wofford
B1: William Wofford Background
William Wofford was born October 25, 1728, in Maryland, where, exactly, is disputed.
One family history claims that he wrote in his own hands that he was born twelve miles north of
the Federal City (this is now Washington, D.C.),in Prince George County, Maryland. He died
circa 1820 in what is now Toccoa, Habersham County, Georgia.
His father was Absalom Wofford and his mother was Sarah Hosey. He was the oldest of
five bothers (some family histories claim there were a total of seven brothers--adding Jeremiah
and Absolem). But, at least, there are five often referred to in Wofford Family Histories as the
“five brothers”.
All “five brothers” migrated to the upstate of South Carolina before the Revolutionary
War. The Five Brothers primarily settled in the area of what is now Spartanburg and Union
Counties. William’s four brothers in this area were John, Joseph, James, and Benjamin. All were
active in the Revolution, four were Whigs (Patriots), i.e., William, John, Joseph and James and
all four made claims to the state government for claims arising out of the Revolution after the
war. The family was divided as Benjamin was a Tory (Loyalist). After the war Benjamin was
banished from the state--he had been extremely active in the Loyalist cause--and his property
Emotions were strong before and during the Revolution. Many families were split. It was
a real “civil” war. At one point in time Joseph signed an affidavit against his brother, Benjamin,
implicating him in a Tory plot against the Whigs. Joseph was very active as a Whig through the
whole war and before in the “Snow Campaign” of 1775 and The Indian War in the summer of
1776. There are some who believe when William Henry Drayton, Oliver Hart, and others
enjoyed a barbeque at Captain Warford’s on August 21, 1775, that it was Captain Joseph
Wofford. However, while Joseph was a “captain” at that time, a “captain” William Warford
made a claim after the revolution for revolutionary services. Also, a William Wofford is known
to have lived on Lawson’s Fork in 1770. Finally, the letter of W.H. Drayton dated 8-21-1775 is
datelined “Lawson’s Fork.” This William “Warford” is unknown. Perhaps the son of Col.
William Wofford.
William was also very active as a Whig and was early made a colonel. Some family
historians claim he served Maryland in the French and Indian War and had attained the rank of
Colonel. But, by September of 1775, at least, he was referred to as a “Colonel” (note: he was
also, at times, early designated as Lt. Colonel) in South Carolina and sought commissions from
the state to raise a regiment in service of the Whigs.
In the summer of 1776, as the Indian war began, William built a fort on Lawson’s Fork
known as Wofford’s Fort. Sometime in 1776 he “began’” or “continued” Wofford’s Iron Works;
and, the Second battle of Cedar Springs culminated there on August 8, 1780. (The iron works,
according to tradition, were destroyed by Bloody Bill Cunningham in November, 1781).
Wofford’s Fort served as a Ranger station and point of refuge for local inhabitants. A
child of Joseph Buffington (Buffington’s Iron Works) was born there in July, 1776. Col Wofford

Page 13
was active in the war against the Indians in 1776. On February 6, 1779 Loyalist Lt. Col. John
Moore planned to capture William Wofford, John Thomas, Sr., and some gunpowder at John
Thomas’s home on Fairforest Creek, Spartanburg County. Wofford was captured but set free less
than a month near Kettle Creek, Ga., by Captain William Baskin.
After he sold a three-quarter interest in his ironworks in 1779, Wofford purchased
acreage on the South Fork of the Catawba River at the Turkey Cove, now Burke County, N.C.,
and built a fort. It was also a rallying point during the revolution and suffered attacks from the
Indians. He was a very active man. He purchased land at many locations in North Carolina and
received grants of land from the state.
In the 1790s he moved to Georgia. It was known as the Wofford Settlement or Four Mile
Purchase. Again he built a fort. It was near the end of the Middle Fork of the Broad River and
near Currahee Mountain.
Every area of his life was an adventure. There is much to be yet written about the fort and
ironworks on Lawson’s Fork, the fort and possible ironworks on Turkey Cove, and the
fascinating history of the Wofford Settlement in Georgia.
Col. William Wofford was married more than once. His last wife was Mary Bobo. When
William sold the ironworks on Lawson Forks in 1779 one “Mary” also signed the deed. His
known sons were William, Jr., Nathaniel, Benjamin, and James. Some claim other sons and
B2: William Wofford and the SC House of Representatives
N. Louise Bailey and Elizabeth Ivey Cooper, Biographical Directory of the South
Carolina House of Representatives, Vol. III, 1775-1790, (Columbia, South Carolina: University
of South Carolina Press, 1981), pp. 785-786. The following is a direct quote:
“WOFFORD, WILLIAM (Woofford, Wafford) (1728-1823?)
William Wofford, born 25 October 1728 in Prince Georges County, Maryland, moved to
South Carolina in the 1760s. He settled on Lawson’s Fork where he established Wofford’s Iron
Works. Through grants he obtained at least 750 acres near the Tyger and Pacolet rivers and
Fairforest Creek. Having gained military experience during the French and Indian War, and in
the Regulator movement (1768-1769), Wofford served as a Whig lieutenant colonel in the
American Revolution and participated in Andrew Williamson’s Cherokee campaign (July-
October 1776). The Lower District Between Broad and Saluda Rivers elected him to the Second
Provincial Congress (1775-1776) and First General Assembly (1776). Locally he served as a
road commissioner (1770) and justice of the peace for the Craven County (1765) and for Ninety
Six District (1774-1776). Wofford sold his ironworks to Simon Berwick circa 1779-1780 and
relocated near Turkey Creek Cove on the upper Catawba River in North Carolina. There he
purchased 900 acres and constructed a fort. Sometime in the late 1780s or early 1790s, he
moved to northern Georgia, settling in either Habersham or Franklin counties. Evidently married
several times, Wofford probably was the husband of Sarah Cameron (m. 1748), Nancy Greenleaf
(m. 1773?), and Mary Bobo (m. before 1790). Among his children were the following:
Benjamin, William C., James, Mary, Nathaniel, Ann, Charlotte, and Sarah. William Wofford
died sometime in 1823 in Habersham County, Georgia.

Page 14
Second Provincial Congress Lower District Between
Broad and Saluda Rivers
First General Assembly
Lower District Between
Broad and Saluda Rivers

Page 15
William Henry Drayton
Walter B. Edgar and N. Louise Bailey, Biographical Directory of the South Carolina
House of Representatives, Vol. II, 1692-1775, (Columbia, South Carolina: University of South
Carolina Press, 1977), pp. 201-210. The following is a direct quote:
“DRAYTON, WILLIAM HENRY (William-Henry) (1742-1779). Son of JOHN DRAYTON
(1713?-1779); father of JOHN DRAYTON (1766-1822); grandson of WILLIAM BULL (1683-
1755); brother of CHARLES DRAYTON and GLEN DRAYTON; son-in-law of CULCHETH
William Henry Drayton, son of John Drayton and Charlotta Bull, was born at Drayton
Hall in 1742 and baptized in the parish church of St. Andrew 1 August 1743. When a teenager,
his father sent him to England with Charles Pinkney (d. 1758) who intended to educate his sons
there. In 1761 Drayton matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford, where he studied for several
years but did not receive a degree. He evidently played a great deal while in England and ran up
large debts which his father refused to honor. Upon his return to South Carolina, he wed
Dorothy Golightly, daughter and heiress of Culcheth Golightly and Mary Butler, on 29 March
1764. They had four children, three of whom—Mary (m. Thomas Parker), John, and William
Henry—survived childhood. From her father Dorothy Golightly inherited considerable property
in the parish of St. Bartholomew where the young couple eventually settled. In Charleston, he
was a member of the Charleston Library Society (1766). Drayton was fond of racehorses and
gambling on them and maintained a stable of thoroughbreds which was managed by white
employees. Despite his wife’s wealth and his connections, he was continually in financial
difficulties, some of which were caused by his political activities.
Drayton’s early political career was a fiasco. He represented the parish of St. Andrew in
the Twenty-seventh Royal Assembly (1765-1768) and was a justice of the peace for Berkeley
County (1767, 1769). On 3 August 1769 he published the first of nine essays in the South-
Carolina Gazette attacking the Non-Importation Agreements. Then followed a heated debate in
the newspaper in which William Wragg supported Drayton’s view and Christopher Gadsden and
John MacKenzie supported non-importation. Wragg’s views were respected, but Drayton’s were
dismissed as the ravings of a dilettante who was in over his head. In 1770 his uncle, Lieutenant
Governor William Bull, recommended him for an assistant judgeship because he was ‘free from
unconstitutional prejudices,’ but he was not appointed. Unable to take the social and economic
ostracism—the latter cost him dearly as he had to market his own rice in London at a
disadvantage—he sailed for England 3 January 1770. While in London he had the debates from
the South-Carolina Gazette printed as The Letters of Freeman, Etc. (1771), but the publication
received little attention in either Britain or America. He was introduced at Court and on 1
February 1771 was appointed a member of the South Carolina Royal Council. However, he did
not claim his seat until 3 April 1772, when he joined his father on the Council.

Page 16
Within a short time Drayton was at loggerheads with his fellow councilors to whom he
soon became anathema. He underwent a startling change in political philosophy from ardent
supporter of the Crown to radical revolutionary; the change may have been due to his search for
local popularity or to his distaste for the flood of placement that descended upon South Carolina
during the 1770s. In August 1771 he was appointed Deputy Postmaster General for the Southern
District of North America, but he held the post only until a placeman could be sent from London
to fill the position. In public and private he railed against placemen on the Council who did not
have the best interests of the province at heart. In 1772 he and his father opposed the Council’s
rejection of a bill passed by the House. William Henry Drayton’s protest was printed in the
South-Carolina Gazette, and the Council promptly jailed the printer for breach of privilege, an
action which Drayton also publicly protested. The Council voted, but then rescinded, a
resolution censuring him on the technical grounds that he had not physically given the protest to
the printer. When a vacancy appeared on the bench Bull, on 25 January 1774, temporarily
appointed Drayton as an assistant judge for the Northern Circuit comprising Camden, Cheraws,
Georgetown. On the circuit he encouraged the grand juries to cherish their civil liberties and to
beware of tyranny. A placeman arrived in the colony with an appointment for the judgeship and
when Drayton returned to Charleston his commission was revoked 9 December 1774. Following
his publication of A Letter of Freeman of South Carolina to the Deputies of North-America
(1774) in which he attacked the royal prerogative, pressure mounted within the Council for his
suspension. In 1775 the Council again rejected a bill passed by the House and again Drayton
registered a public protest with resulted in his suspension 1 March 1775.
After his ouster from the Council, Drayton turned to addressing public gatherings in
Charleston. He soon was a popular figure with the masses and was associated with the
revolutionary faction. In 1775 the backcountry district of Saxe Gotha elected him to the First
Provincial Congress (1775). He was a member of the Secret Committee (1775) which was
responsible for the province’s defense and also of the Council of Safety (1775). The congress
sent him and two Baptist ministers, William Tennent and Oliver Hart, to the interior to explain
the patriot position. During August and September 1775 they journeyed throughout the
backcountry and although they did not immediately gain many converts for the cause, they did
get pro-British sympathizers to sign a treaty of neutrality 16 September 1775 which bought time
for the Charleston government. Saxe Gotha returned Drayton to the Second Provincial Congress
(1775-1776) which elected him its President. Again, he was a member of the Council of Safety
and this time was its chairman. The congress resolved itself into the First General Assembly
(1776) and he was elected the first Chief Justice of the State of South Carolina (1776-1779). He
resigned from the House but in a special election was reelected by Saxe Gotha; the House,
however, declared the election null and void. Under the Constitution of 1776, the position of
Chief Justice was not a disqualifying one. Drayton represented Saxe Gotha in the Second
General Assembly (1776-1778) and was elected by the legislature to the Privy Council (1776-
1778) and to the Continental Congress where he took his seat 30 March 1778. In the general
election for the Third General Assembly (1779-1780) he was elected by the parishes of St. Philip
& St. Michael and the District between the Savannah River and the North Fork of the Edisto
River but qualified for St. Philip & St. Michael. Although still a member of Congress, he
participated in the Second General Assembly and criticized the proposed Articles of
Confederation because they did not provide enough protection for the rights of the states and
sections. He did, however, sign the Articles on 9 July 1778. In Philadelphia he actively
supported the French alliance, immersed himself in committee work, and was a constant critic of

Page 17
his fellow South Carolinian, Henry Laurens, who was President of the Continental Congress.
During these years he found time to write and publish five pamphlets—Some Fugitive Thoughts
on a Letter signed Freeman (1774), A very Short & Candid Appeal to Free Born Britons (1774),
and address to the Howe brothers by ‘A Carolinian’ (1776), and Answer to . . . John Treutlen, . . .
Governor . . . of the State of Georgia (1777), and The Genuine Spirit of Tyranny (1778)—and to
design the Great Seal of the State of South Carolina. In addition several of his speeches
appeared in print: A Charge on the rise of the American Empire (1776) and The Speech of
William Henry Drayton . . . upon the Articles of Confederation (1778).
William Henry Drayton died in Philadelphia of typhus fever 3 September 1779 and was
buried in Christ Church Cemetery there.
Twenty-seventh Royal Assembly
St. Andrew
First Provincial Congress
Saxe Gotha
Second Provincial Congress
Saxe Gotha
First General Assembly
Saxe Gotha
Second General Assembly
Saxe Gotha
Third General Assembly
St. Philip & St. Michael

Page 18
William Tennent
N. Louise Bailey and Elizabeth Ivey Cooper, Biographical Directory of the South
Carolina House of Representatives, Vol. III, 1775-1790, (Columbia, South Carolina: University
of South Carolina Press, 1981), pp. 704-706. The following is a direct quote:
“TENNENT, WILLAM (Tennant) (1740-1777).
William Tennent, son of Reverend William Tennent (1705-1777) and Catherine
VanBrugh, was born on 3 February 1740 in Freehold, New Jersey. His family included several
influential Presbyterians, not the least of whom was Tennent himself. Graduating from the
College of New Jersey (Princeton) in 1758, he later obtained a Master of Arts degree from his
alma mater (1761) and Harvard (1763). Ordained a minister by the presbytery of New
Brunswick, New Jersey, he preached in Hanover, Virginia, of six months. By 3 July 1765, he
was serving as assistant minister of the Congregational Church in Norwalk, Connecticut.
Tennent remained at this post until he accepted a call issued by the Independent (Congregational)
Church of Charleston (November 1771). Arriving in Charleston on 18 March 1772, he soon
became one of South Carolina’s foremost clergymen. According to Henry Laurens, Tennent
held “the most absolute & rigid principles of the Doctrine of Predestination . . .” Within six
months after his move to Charleston, he convinced his congregation to erect a second church,
declaring the “The Dissenting Interest should have an opportunity to grow; we are to be
considered a frontier . . .”
As the colonies’ conflict with Great Britain intensified, Tennent became a powerful force
in Carolina political affairs. An ardent Whig, he strongly objected to British colonial policy after
1773. Between June and December 1774, he wrote anonymous letters to local newspapers,
attacking the various acts of Parliament. When the first Provincial congress (1775) met in
Charleston, Tennent was chosen to represent St. Philip & St. Michael parishes. Elected by the
District Eastward of Wateree River, h e served in the Second Provincial Congress (1775-1776)
and the First General Assembly (1776). Furthermore, he was appointed to the committee of
intelliegence (April 1775), the special committee (May 1775), the committee which formulated
the Association (July 1775), and the committee which considered the feasibility of blockading
the Charleston harbor (September 1775). In July 1775, Tennent, William Henry Drayton,
Richard Richardson (1704-1780), Joseph Kershaw, and Oliver hart were selected by the
legislature to journey to the backcountry in an effort to win support for the patriots’ cause.
During August and September 1775, Tennent traveled over 300 miles and often preached and
argued the American position for hours at a time. Among the effects of his trip was renewed
animosity toward the established Anglican church. As a dissenter, Tennent was South Carolina’s
leading advocate of the disestablishment of the Church of England. The author of a petition
appealing for disestablishment, he obtained the signature of several thousand individuals and in
January 1777 presented the petition to the legislature.
On 12 July 1764, Tennent married Susannah Vergereau, daughter of Pierre Vergereau
and Susannah Boudinot of New York. They were parents of five children: Susanna Catherine
(m. Charles Brown [1762-1819]), Mary Vergereau (m. Joseph Hall Ramsay [1762-1803]),

Page 19
William Peter, Catherine Caroline (m. Samuel Smith [1739-1829]), and John Charles. When his
father died on 8 March 1777, Tennent proceeded to New Jersey with the intention of bringing his
mother to South Carolina. On the return trip, William Tennent fell ill with a fever and died on
11 August 1777 in the High Hills of Santee. Writing his will shortly before his departure, he
stated, ‘I Leave the manner of Interment to my Executors Hereinafter named, only hinting to
them that in Life I ever esteemed all pomp and parade at Funerals, not only a Vain Ostentation,
but a grave indecency, contradicting the plainest tendency of death which is to teach Survivors
First Provincial Congress
St. Philip & St. Michael
Second Provincial Congress District Eastward of Wateree River
First General Assembly
District Eastward of Wateree River

Page 20
Oliver Hart
E1: Preacher Oliver Hart
Tom Nettles, “The Rise and Demise of Calvinism Among Southern Baptists,” The
Founders Journal #19/20: Winter/Spring 1995, <>,
(7/30/2009). The following is a direct quote:
“The Move South
First Baptist Church of Boston, established by Thomas Gould with the help of Particular
Baptists from England, played a major role in the establishing of Baptist life in the South.
William Screven, a Baptist from England and signer of the Somerset Confession of Faith, was
ordained by the church in January 1682 so that he might establish a church in Kittery, Maine.
Later the church in Boston set aside the group in Kittery as a separate congregation. A part of
the examination included their determining that the Kittery group conscientiously acknowledged
the Second London Confession of Faith. This church eventually moved, in 1696, to Charleston,
South Carolina, becoming the first Baptist Church in the South. When Screven retired as pastor,
he warned the congregation to obtain a man to lead them as soon as possible and be careful that
he is ‘orthodox in faith, and of blameless life, and does own the confession of faith put forth by
our brethren in London in 1689.’
The power and influence of this confession continued for many years. Three of the most
notable pastors of the church were Oliver Hart, Richard Furman, and Basil Manly.
Oliver Hart
Oliver Hart was born July 5, 1723, in Warminster, Bucks County, PA. His parents taught
him Christian truth from his earliest years. He was converted in 1741 and baptized in April of
that year, not quite 18 years old. Richard Furman remarks that this was ‘at an early period.’
Hart often heard the Tennents and George Whitefield. Hart Himself testified that he received
great benefit from the preaching of George Whitefield.
December 20, 1746, he was licensed to preach by the Baptist Church at Southampton,
PA. Almost three years later he was ordained to the gospel ministry. Hart immediately came to
the South in response to a call for ministers. In 1749, he is listed as one of the ministers of the
Philadelphia Association. In that year the association presented an essay on the ‘Powers of an
Association’ which Oliver Hart signed. He was called to pastoral charge of the First Baptist
Church, Charleston, S.C., in February, 1750, and continued there for 30 years.
In his funeral oration for Hart, Richard Furman characterized Hart as a ‘Calvinist, and a
consistent, liberal [generous] Baptist.’ He continued,
The doctrines of free, efficacious grace, were precious to him; Christ Jesus,
and him crucified, in the perfection of his righteousness, the merit of his
death, the prevalence of his intercession, and efficacy of his grace, was the
foundation of his hope, the source of his joy, and the delightful theme of his

Page 21
Furman, a keen observer of preachers and preaching, described Hart’s sermons as
‘peculiarly serious, containing a happy assemblage of doctrinal and practical truths.’ Doctrinal
preaching, as a matter of fact especially suited him for he was prepared ‘by an intimate
acquaintance with the sacred scriptures, and an extensive reading of the most valuable, both
ancient and modern, authors.’
On at least three occasions Hart preached ordination sermons built on 1 Timothy 4:16.
Edmund Botsford, Joseph Cook, and Samuel Stillman all heard Hart admonish them to take heed
to themselves and the doctrine. They would constantly remember their own interest in Christ
and the work of grace in their souls. He reminded them:
You cannot be qualified to deal with wounded spirits, unless you have been
sensible of your own wounds. It is not possible you should, in a suitable
Manner, direct Sinners to Christ, without an actual Closure with him
In speaking to the candidates for ministry about their doctrine, Hart said, ‘In general you
will insist upon the two following Topics, namely our apostasy from God, and our Redemption
by Jesus Christ, which will very naturally lead you to take notice of the Transactions of God in
eternity, with reference to your salvation.’ They were to bear in mind that the persons for whom
God’s salvation has been given ‘are a certain, select number, out of the Race of Mankind, who
are redeemed by his blood, justified by his righteousness, called by the inscrutable operations of
his Spirit, sanctified by his grace, and finally glorified.’
In 1780, Hart was forced by the British invasion of Charleston to leave his beloved
people. He found his way to Hopewell, New Jersey, and became pastor of the Baptist church.
Again he was a part of the Philadelphia Association. In fact, in 1780, at the Associational
meeting the minutes recorded ‘Rev. Oliver Hart of Charleston, South Carolina’ was present, and,
along with three others, was admitted ‘to the full privilege of members.’ He was ‘unanimously
requested to preach’ on the evening of Wednesday October 18. In 1782, he was chosen
moderator and also presented the associational letter on the eighth chapter of the Confession,
which treats Christ as mediator. In this letter, he presented a strong statement on the necessity of
the orthodox understanding of Christ’s person, ‘God and man in one person.’ The human nature
was taken ‘in union with and subsisted in the person of the Son of God.’ He spoke also of the
eternal counsel of the Triune Jehovah and voluntary submission of the Son to undertake for the
people he had chosen: “Jehovah, the Father, in his manifold wisdom, having predestinated a
select number of the fallen race to the adoption of children, by Jesus Christ, according to the
eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord, now proposed the business or work
of saving the elect, to Jehovah the Son.’ Hart says that in Christ’s position as mediator, “All the
sins of an elect world were imputed to him.’ As mediator He sustained several characters or
offices which qualify Him for His work. He is covenant head to the elect; He is surety of His
people in which office He took His People’s whole debt to the law upon Himself ‘in
consequence of which, the elect . . . were set free;’ He is an advocate ‘for all the chosen people
of God’ whose advocacy proved ‘efficacious to the pardoning, justifying, and glorifying an elect
world;’ He is a prophet in which office he teaches ‘powerfully and efficaciously by his Word and
Spirit;’ He is a priest in which capacity he’ was offered up a sacrifice to satisfy divine justice for

Page 22
he sins of an elect world;’ He is a king as which he gives the saints the most glorious charter of
privileges contained in the covenant of grace.’
I have entered into some degree of detail concerning Oliver Hart because, like William
Screven, he represents the continuity of doctrine from New England through the South. He also
personifies the unanimity of doctrine and fellowship between the Philadelphia Association and
the Charleston Association. It was due largely to Hart’s vision and energy that associational life
developed among Southern Baptist churches. Furman says, ‘He was the prime mover in that
plan for the association of churches, by which so many of our churches are very happily united at
the present day.’ The Charleston Association was established in 1751 one year after Oliver Hart
came to Charleston and while the spiritual streams of the First Great Awakening were flowing
into southern baptisteries. Following the lead of the Philadelphia Association, the Charleston
Association, in 1767, adopted the Second London Confession as an expression of its doctrinal
stance and used the Baptist Catechism regularly also. The Association’s ‘Summary of
Discipline’ leaned heavily on John Gill’s Body of Divinity.
Hart also led in the movement toward assisting young men to receive an education for the
ministry. Both of these Baptist principles so strong in our own day (inter-church cooperation and
education for the ministry) had their beginning in the South from Oliver Hart, a strong Calvinist
who had been influenced toward this in the context of the Philadelphia Association.”
E2: Baptists and the American Revolution
Providence Baptist Ministries, “A History of the Baptists: CHAPTER 1 – The Baptists in
the American Revolution,”
(7/30/2009). The following is a direct quote:
“Oliver Hart was one of the foremost pastors in South Carolina. He was useful not only
as a minister, but as a citizen, and especially in connection with the events of the Revolution. In
1775, he was appointed by the Council of Safety, which then exercised the executive authority in
South Carolina, to travel, in conjunction with Hon. William H. Drayton and the Rev. William
Tennent, into the interior of the State, to enlighten the people in regard to their political interests,
and reconcile them to certain Congressional measures of which they were disposed to complain.
He was very impressive in his personality. ‘In his person he was somewhat tall, well
proportioned and of graceful appearance; of an active, vigorous constitution, before it was
impaired by close application his studies and by abundant labors. His countenance was open and
manly, his voice clear, harmonious and commanding; the powers of his mind were strong and
capacious, and enriched by a fund of useful knowledge; his taste was elegant and refined’
(Sprague, VI.).
Of his usefulness as a citizen there is no doubt, Dr. Furman says of his actions as a
To all of which may be added his usefulness as a citizen of America.
Prompt in his judgment, ardent in his love of liberty, and rationally
jealous for the rights of his country, he took an early and decided part in
those measures which led our patriots to successful opposition against
the encroachments of arbitrary power, and brought us to possess all the

Page 23
blessings of our happy independence. Yet he did not mix politico with
the Gospel, nor desert the duties of his stations to pursue them; but,
attending to each in its proper place, he gave weight to his political
sentiments, by the propriety and uprightness of his conduct; and the
influence of it was felt by many (Sprague, VI).”

Page 24
50 Acres of Land
The below survey is the fifty acres sold by James Mackelroy to Joseph Buffington; and,
is the land on which Buffington thought he had built his ironworks. It turned out the iron works
were located on vacant unclaimed public land. The legislature of the State of South Carolina
remedied this problem and surveyed out 600 acres to Buffington including the ironworks on
payment of his state loans.(The source for this is in the attached, also deed from Mackelroy to
Buffington in the footnotes, #18.)

Page 25
350 Acres of Land
The below survey, undated, represents 350 acres of land on Lawson’s Fork Creek, now
Spartanburg County, S.C., granted to James Mackelroy (the spelling of his name is an amazing
configuration of the imagination on other contemporary documents) by the State of North
Carolina. Until 1772, North Carolina claimed land into present day Laurens County, South
James MacKelroy was a gunsmith and, as a gunsmith, would need a forge. There is
speculation a “forge” indicated on a 1770 map (apparently owned by John Lane of Wofford
College, Spartanburg, SC)of Lawson’s Fork Creek area could be his as he got the land in about
1768. It is also known that one William Wofford (it is unknown which William Wofford this is)
also had a “mill” on Lawson’s Fork in 1770, but it is only designated as a “mill” not a ”forge” on
a contemporary document about maintaining roads. James Mackelroy sold a fifty acre tract of
this land to Joseph Buffington. Buffington thought he built his ironworks on this land but, in fact,
did not. This posed a problem. The remaining three-hundred acres were sold to William
Wofford. Wofford built his ironworks on this tract (it is a pure assumption, but the “forge” of
Mackilroy could have been the beginnings of either Buffington’s or Wofford’s ironworks).

Page 26
William Henderson
N. Louise Bailey and Elizabeth Ivey Cooper, Biographical Directory of the South
Carolina House of Representatives, Vol. III, 1775-1790, (Columbia, South Carolina: University
of South Carolina Press, 1981), pp. 328-329. The following is a direct quote:
“HENDERSON, WILLIAM (1748-1788). Brother of JOHN HENDERSON (d. 1824?); brother-
in-law of WILLIAM RANSON DAVIS (1755?-1799).
William Henderson, born 5 March 1748 in Granville County, North Carolina, was the
son of Samuel Henderson and Elizabeth Williams. By 1771, he and other family members had
moved to the Pacolet River in Ninety Six District, South Carolina. From the beginning of the
American Revolution, he involved himself in the struggle for independence. In 1775 he began
military service as a private in Thomas Woodward’s company of rangers and participated in
December in the Snow Campaign. On 29 February 1776, Henderson was commissioned a major
in the Sixth Regiment of Rifles. Promoted to lieutenant colonel in the Continental Establishment
16 September 1776, he served in the Georgia campaign (June-July 1778) and at the Battle of
Stono Ferry (June 1779). Captured at the fall of Charleston (May 1780), he was held prisoner at
Haddrell’s Point for several months. Once exchanged, Henderson joined Thomas Sumter’s
Brigade, taking command of the force when Sumter received a wound at Blackstock’s plantation
(November 1780). Leading an advance guard at the Battle of Eutaw Springs (September 1781),
he too was severely wounded and temporarily retired from the field. Following Sumter’s
resignation in February 1782, Henderson was promoted to brigadier general of the state troops
and served until 21 November 1783.
Politically active also during the war, Henderson represented the Lower District Between
(sic.) Broad and Saluda Rivers in the Second Provincial Congress (1775-1776) and First General
Assembly (1776). The Upper District Between (sic.) Broad and Saluda Rivers elected him to the
Third (1779-1780), Fourth (1782), and Fifth (1783-1784) General Assemblies. Locally
Henderson served as a justice of the peace (1776) for Lewisburg County (1785) and
commissioner, to contract for a canal from the Cooper River to the Santee River (1785). He was
a member of the Mount Sion Society (1778) and the South Carolina Society (1779).
Sometime after the Revolution, Henderson sold his land at Grindal Shoals on the Pacolet
River to his brother John and moved to the Santee River. Between 1784 and 1787, he obtained
through grants 700 acres in Orangeburg District and 180 acres in Camden District. In his will
Henderson bequeathed 1,000 acres on the Pacolet River, a tract on the Wateree River,
undisclosed property in Ninety Six District, another tract in Camdem District of unknown
acreage, and a plantation in the High Hills of Santee known as Prospect Hill. Married to Letitia
Davis, widow of Jared Nelson of St. Matthew Parish, he was the father one child, Eliza Moriah
(m. Simon Taylor). William Henderson died 29 January 1788 at his plantation.
Second Provincial Congress Lower District Between
Broad and Saluda Rivers
First General Assembly
Lower District

Page 27
Between Broad and Saluda Rivers
Third General Assembly
Lower District Between
Broad and Saluda Rivers
Fourth General Assembly Lower District Between
Broad and Saluda Rivers
Fifth General Assembly
Lower District Between
Broad and Saluda Rivers

Page 28
John Berwick
N. Louise Bailey and Elizabeth Ivey Cooper, Biographical Directory of the South
Carolina House of Representatives, Vol. III, 1775-1790, (Columbia, South Carolina: University
of South Carolina Press, 1981), pp. 68-69. The following is a direct quote:
“BERWICK, JOHN (Berwicke) (d. 1784). Brother of SIMON BERWICK (d. 1783).
John Berwick was a cordwainer in Charleston. He and his brother Simon owned their
own tanyard and did a brisk business making and supplying shoes to both whites and blacks. In
addition, the brothers jointly shared two grants for a combined 700 acres at the fork of the Edisto
River and one grant for 500 acres in Orangeburg Township. However, John Berwick was the
sole recipient of a 500-acre grant with was also located on the Edisto. At his death, his estate
listed 645 acres at Haddrell’s Point in Christ Church Parish and 24 slaves.
At the beginning of hostilities between Great Britain and the colonies, Berwick took an
active stand on the patriot side. He served on the Committee of Correspondence (1774) and was
considered a member of the mechanics’ faction. Although he supplied the militia with
provisions, a sailing vessel, and slave labor, his major financial contribution to the war was the
lending of £42,245 to the Carolina government. St. Philip & St. Michael parishes elected him to
the First (1775) and Second (1775-1776) Provincial Congresses and to the First (1776) and
Second (1776-1778), and Third (1779-1780) General Assemblies. After Charleston fell to the
British (May 1780), he was exiled in November 1780 to St. Augustine as a prisoner of war and
remained there until exchanged in the summer of 1781. Returning home, he was chosen by
Christ Church for the fourth (1782) and Fifth (1783-1784) General Assemblies. Berwick also
served the Fourth General Assembly as temporary Clerk until a permanent one could be secured;
however, no other person was elected during the session and he evidently continued to act as
both clerk and member. Other offices and memberships he held included member of the
Fellowship Society (1773); commissioner, to stamp and issue currency (1776, 1777); and
commissioner for the sale of confiscated estates (1782).
On 16 January 1774, Berwick wed Ann Ash, daughter of Algernon and Elizabeth Ash
and widow of John Daniel (d. 1757) and Richard Cochran Ash (d. 1770). One child—Ann Eliza
(m. Thomas Legare [1766-1842])—was born to their marriage. John Berwick died 4 February
1784 ‘after a lingering indisposition.’
First Provincial Congress
St. Philip & St. Michael
Second Provincial Congress St. Philip & St. Michael
First General Assembly
St. Philip & St. Michael
Second General Assembly St. Philip & St. Michael
Third General Assembly
St. Philip & St. Michael
Fourth General Assembly
Christ Church
Fifth General Assembly
Christ Church
Fourth General Assembly

Page 29
Charles Elliott
Walter B. Edgar and N. Louise Bailey, Biographical Directory of the South Carolina
House of Representatives, Vol. II, 1692-1775, (Columbia, South Carolina: University of South
Carolina Press, 1977), pp. 220-221. The following is a direct quote:
“ELLIOTT, CHARLES (1737-1781), Son of THOMAS ELLIOTT (1699-1760), grandson of
THOMAS ELLIOTT (d. 1731?); grandfather of WILLIAM WASHINGTON (d. 1830); brother
of THOMAS LAW ELLIOTT; son-in-law of THOMAS FERGUSON (1726?-1786); father-in-
law of WILLIAM WASHINGTON (1752-1810); brother-in-law of ARCHIBALD
Charles Elliott, son of Thomas Elliott and his second wife Susannah, was born in South
Carolina 17 August 1737. From part of the several thousand acres in Colleton County which he
inherited from his father, he created Sandy Hill and Live Oak plantations in St. Paul Parish.
Between 1767 and 1773 he obtained grants for 3,273 acres in Colleton County, 650 acres in
Craven County, and 450 acres in Granville County. In 1767 he formed a partnership with
Thomas Ferguson (d. 1786), Daniel Cannon, John Marley, Moses Kirkland, and John Ward, Jr.
(1732-1783) to build a sawmill on the Edisto River. Rather than use a middleman, in 1772 he
imported a cargo of slaves himself.
Elliott divided his time between Charleston where he had a house on Friend Street and
was a member of the St. Andrew’s Society (1763-1781) and Sandy Hill. He served the parish of
St. Paul as a commissioner, for building a church (1764); commissioner, for Cacaw Swamp
(1768); and as a member of the Twenty-eighth (1768) and Twenty-ninth (1769-1771) Royal
Assemblies. He was one of the “Unanimous Twenty-six” who voted on 19 November 1768 to
consider the Massachusetts Circular Letter which resulted in the dissolution of the assembly.
The election of 1769 in St. Paul was declared void by the House because there had been a riot at
the polls; in the ensuing special election, Elliott was reelected and qualified for the House 30
November 1769. Also in 1769 he was a member of the General Committee of the Non-
Importation Association. When the Revolution broke out, he lent the state £4,000. He continued
to represent his home parish of St. Paul and was a member of the First (1775) and Second (1775-
1776) Provincial Congresses and the First (1776), Second (1776-1778), and Third (1779-1780)
General Assemblies.
Elliott married twice. His first wife was Jane Stanyarne, daughter of Joseph Stanyarne.
They had two children, Charles and Jane Reily (m. William Washington). On 3 January 1766
Elliott took out a license to wed Ann Ferguson, daughter of Thomas Ferguson and his first wife
Sarah; their union was childless. Charles Elliott died 16 January 1781 at Sandy Hill and was
buried two days later in the Elliot family cemetery at Live Oak.
Twenty-eighth Royal Assembly
St. Paul
Twenty-ninth Royal Assembly
St. Paul
First Provincial Congress
St. Paul
Second Provincial Congress
St. Paul

Page 30
First General Assembly
St. Paul
Second General Assembly
St. Paul
Third General Assembly
St. Paul

Page 31
Survey for Charles Mathews
Plat Book A, page 193, Register of Deeds, Spartanburg County, SC.
The below is a survey for Charles Mathews dated December 29, 1804. It is included to
show the close proximity of the two shoals on Lawson’s Fork Creek. The Shoal on the right is
near the iron bridge at Glendale. The Shoal on the left is at the old Georgia Road. The survey
calls it the road to Hammits ford, but a contemporary Militia beat boundary outline located by
Joey Gainey and published by the Piedmont Historical Society identifies the Georgia Road as
going to Hammits Ford. Wofford’s iron Works was on the Georgia Road south side of Lawson’s
Fork Creek near the now existing fifty yard man made sluice for an undershot waterwheel.
Buffington’s Iron Works was near the dam and iron bridge. It is speculation, but possibly he used
an overshot water wheel. Buffington’s would be on the spot where an addition to Glendale Mill
was under excavation on the north side of Lawson’s Fork Creek in the early 20
Michael Hembree and Paul Crocker located a newspaper article dated 1902 reporting discovery
of implements for a smelting and foundry operations. Much of the land in the attached survey
was purchased by Charles Mathews (Mathis) from Benjamin Wofford a son of William Wofford.
In a deed from William Wofford to Benjamin Wofford he conveys 20 acres on the “shoals” on
the “main road”. He said it included the cabin in which he once lived, and orchards. Looking at
the plat you can see such a house and possible orchard at the intersection of the road and creek.
You can also see how Joseph Buffington may have thought he owned all the lowers shoal but
built on a part he did not.

Page 32
Survey for William Ross Smith
Plat Book A, page 77, Register of Deeds, Spartanburg County, SC.
The below exhibit is a survey for William Ross Smith dated September 27, 1803. It is for
940 acres on Lawson’s Fork and is included to visualize the road (hardly more than a path)
crossing Lawson’s Fork at the lower shoal. This survey adjoins the survey for Charles Mathews.
There seems to have been two William R. Smiths and two James Smith’s. From their deed
transactions they were related. They referred to one tract of land as being the “upper shoal” tract
(purchased from Charles Mathews) and the 940 acre tract of land as the “lower” mill or
Ironworks Tract.

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State Militia Order for Spartanburg County
Joey Gainey, “Brigade Orders,” Spartanburg County Deed Book, “W”, p. 1, Item No.
820, June 2, 1836 Piedmont Historical Society,
<>. The following is a direct quote:
“Brigade Orders, Battalion Muster ground, February 12
To Brigadier Gen. Joseph G. Shelton.
Sir pursuant to your Orders, we have this day met and laid off the first battalion, thirty fifth
Regiment of the Sixth Brigade, of the fifth division of the South Carolina Militia (Viz)
Company No. 1, from the rolling mill on broad river (sic.) to Isaac Peelers, thence in a straight
line, to the mouth of the blew Branch (sic.), on thickity (sic.), thence to the green river road
(sic.), thence along said road, to the Regimental Line, thence along said line, by Rices (sic.)
Mountain, to the North Carolina Line, thence along said line, to Broad River, and thence along
said Line (sic.) to the beginning.
Company No. 2, From (sic.) John Wilkins to Pacolet River at the trough shoal, thence in a
straight line to Tollisons (sic.) Old place, thence to Abraham Gossets, thence to Gibb’s
Mountain, thence to Lawson Fork, where the Georgia Road crosses it, thence with said Road to
Hammetts (sic.) Ford, on Pacolet, thence in a Straight (sic.) line, to Prices (sic.) Mountain, thence
down the green River Road (sic.), to the beginning, (sic.)
Company No. 3, from the mouth of the blew branch (sic.), down thickety (sic.) Creek, to Jeffries’
Ford, thence to Gawdeys (sic.) [or Gandeys (sic.)] store, thence to the sandy Ford (sic.), on
Packolett (sic.), up said River (sic.) to the mouth of the Sandy Run, thence up sandy run (sic.) to
the Union Road, thence up said Road (sic.) to Tollisons (sic.) old place, thence to the traugh
(sic.) Shoals, on Pacolet, thence to John Wilkins, and thence to the mouth of Blew Branch, (sic.)
Company No. 4, from the mouth of blew branch (sic.) Down (sic.) thickety (sic.) to John Jeffries
(sic.) Ford on thicaty (sic.), thence to Gawdeys (sic.) Store, thence to the sandy ford on Pacolet,
down said river to the skull Shoals (sic.), thence thence (sic.) to Hopes (sic.) Mills, on thickety
(sic.), down thickaty (sic.) to its mouth, thence up Broad River, to the rolling mill, thence to
Isaac Peelers, thence to the mouth of the blew branch (sic.), on thickaty (sic.) Creek to the
Commissioners present: (Commissioners) John Kerby, Edward Patterson, James Jeffries,
Samuel Otterson.
NB. Your commissioners would recommend the following places, for Elections as the most
Central, (Viz)

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For No 1. at Richard Arnolds (sic.) old place
For No 2. at Col. Edward Pattersons (sic.).
) McBridesville
For No 3. at Maj’r John Kirby’s.
For No 4. at Aaron Wilkins (sic.) old place.

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Cupola Furnace
N1: Cupola Furnace at Bivingsville
The cupola furnace at Bivingsville (Glendale)--during the Civil War--was probably used
in connection with the foundry operation. A cupola furnace is not designed for smelting iron ore,
but for melting pig iron or even scrap iron to pour into various molds. The “process” of melting
pig iron and smelting iron ore is basically the same. The major difference is there is little slag in
melting pig iron and, of course, mining for iron ore. However, given the pressing nature of the
need, it could be used for re-smelting trough runners and heavy slag. As to the type of iron
smelting done on Lawson’s Fork Creek by Joseph Buffington before and during the American
Revolution, we submit the following article by Grace A. Ayers. It is based primarily on smelting
in a cold climate area and an area without slave labor. Also, local ore, surface or mined, not “bog
ore” would be used; and furnaces in the South may not have been as large as their northern
brothers. Otherwise it should generally outline smelting used by Joseph Buffington and William
N2: Iron Making: From Bloomery to Blast
Grace A. Ayers, “Iron Making: From Bloomery to Blast,” 2004,
<>, (7/30/2009). The following are
Early History
Evidence shows that man has worked iron for many centuries but the first recorded
example of iron making appeared in a region of Germany in A.D. 1311. At that time, iron
making was done in great secrecy but the men who worked the little forges slowly spread their
knowledge throughout the European continent and forty years later cast iron items were being
made in southeastern England. The first recorded English example of cast iron was a gravestone
dated 1450.
Early forges were primitive and consisted of a hearth, a tuyere (sic.) and a short stack.
Each forge produced a lump of iron that was hammered and reheated to achieve a bar of iron.
These forges were located in forested areas because charcoal was the fuel used in smelting and
trees were needed to make charcoal. A type of bellows, powered by man or animal, was used to
produce the blast of air.
In England, the forges were called bloomeries. As they grew in size, larger bellows were
required. Water soon became a better source of power. As a result, bloomeries began to emerge
from forests into more open areas near streams and rivers.
Colonists migrating to America brought the art of making iron with them. Not many
records of forges in colonial times exist. The Pilgrims discovered bog ore in marshy areas and
formed the Company of Undertakers of the Iron Works of New England. Their first attempt at

Page 36
iron making in Massachusetts failed but the second attempt, in Saugus, was very successful. The
furnace was fired in 1648 and operated off and on until 1675.
The Saugus Ironworks was hailed as the birthplace of the American iron and steel
industry and is now a National Historic Park with a reconstructed blast furnace, a forge, a
refinery, a rolling mill and worker housing.
The Bloomery Forge
Early American iron makers used one of two very difference processes to smelt iron—
bloomery or blast furnace. Wrought iron was made in a bloomery forge. It was a soft, carbon-
free iron easily hammered into nails, wheel rims and horseshoes.
The bloomery forge was very popular. With a small investment of time and money, one
was easily set up. A bloomery was 6 to 8 feet square, had a 3 to 4 foot high hearth, a bellows and
in many cases, a water wheel. Charcoal and bog iron ore (called the charge) were loaded into the
bloomery and heated. As the charge melted, a bloomer used long iron tools to constantly turn and
fold the charge. He worked out pieces of stone and other non-iron material, called slag. When all
the slag was removed from the charge, a bloom remained. The bloomer removed this from the
hearth with long tongs.
It was hammered to squeeze out the remaining non-iron particles, reheated and
hammered again. The process was repeated until the bloom was shaped into a long, thick bar of
iron that was cut into pieces or rolled into smaller bars. Waste material left in the hearth was
removed and discarded. The hearth was recharged with charcoal and bog ore and the process was
The bloomery process was inefficient and wasted a lot of good iron. The blooms were
small and produced a few pounds of iron at a time. The British were not willing to share the
latest iron making techniques employed in Europe and American bloomers were sorely lacking
in technology.
In spite of its inefficiency, the bloomery forge remained popular for a number of reasons:
the bloomery cycle ended with the removal of the bloom from the hearth, it consumed less fuel
than the blast furnace and it was able to meet the immediate needs of area blacksmiths.
Bloomeries made a significant contribution to the iron market and they thrived in remote areas of
the U.S. into the late 1800’s.
The Blast Furnace
Cast iron, also known as pig iron when molded into ingots, was made in a blast furnace.
The large carbon content in cast iron made it too hard to hammer. It had to be molded, or cast
into ingots, tools, cannonballs, cooking utensils, pipes and other desired items.
The blast furnace was a major development in the making of iron. Significantly larger
than the bloomery, the early 19th century stack was 25 to 30 feet square at the base and rose 30
to 40 feet high. Built of stone (and sometimes brick) masonry, the stack sloped slightly inward as
it rose so that the top area was smaller than the base area. The large bellows that supplied the
draft or blast of air was powered by a water wheel. The “blast of air” is how the blast furnace got
its name.
The construction of the stack was critical. It was usually built next to a hill or an
embankment to keep the length and slant of the charging ramp to a minimum. Pairs of horizontal
iron rods or flat iron straps called binders were embedded in the walls of the masonry. These
served to hold the masonry together as well as to prevent shifting caused by expansion and

Page 37
contraction during the charging process. The outer wall was tapered inward to reduce the size of
the opening at the top. The inner wall was tapered inward to allow for the shape of the bosh, the
cavity in the furnace. The top part of the bosh was called the shaft. There was a foot of space
between the bosh lining and the inner wall. The crucible and hearth were located directly below
the bosh. The molten iron and slag collected in the crucible.
Arches were an important characteristic of the blast furnace. The number of arches varied
from two to four. The largest was called the work arch and was spacious enough to allow
ironworkers to work the hearth. The other arches housed the bellows and provided additional
work areas. A wooden structure with a sand floor was built against the work arch. Called the
casting house, it protected casting operations from the weather.
Iron ore, charcoal and limestone were the three ingredients used to make iron. They were
prepared for smelting and then put into the furnace in the proper ratios needed to obtain the best
possible quality of iron. Charging carts were used to bring each load of materials to the top of the
charging ramp. Once there, bridge men dumped the materials into the charge hole. The
limestone, called flux, chemically united with the impurities in the bog ore as the two were
heated to produce a waste product known as slag. Charcoal was the fuel. The furnace was lit and
the temperature brought to about 3000° F to liquefy the ingredients.
It took about twelve hours for the ingredients to melt. At the end of that time, the
taphole (sic.) was opened and the molten iron was allowed to run out. Just prior to the pour,
channels were cut in the sand floor of the casting house. The main channels had numerous side
channels branching off at right angles. The configuration resembled a sow nursing piglets, hence
the term pig iron. The molten iron flowed into the channels and was allowed to cool and harden
before being handled for shipment to a manufacturing site.
As the charge liquefied, the slag, which weighed less than the molten iron, was poured
through the slag taphole (sic.) onto sand and was hauled away from the work area.
The slag remaining in the crucible was skimmed from the molten iron as it was poured.
Cold blast furnaces used unheated outside air and required great quantities of fuel to smelt the
ore. The efficiency of the furnace was especially affected during the colder months of the year.
Most blast furnaces did not operate during the winter season because streams and rivers, the
source of power, froze and the water wheel was inoperable.
The efficiency of the blast furnace was determined by the amount of charcoal needed to
make a ton of iron. The design of the stack played an important role in the amount used. The best
stack height was about 35 feet . . .
. . . Sometimes large pieces of ore or charcoal slipped into the furnace unnoticed by the
bridge men working near the charge hole. These large pieces expanded when they neared the
hotter end of the bosh and sometimes caused a blockage. The charge above the blockage stopped
moving and became “frozen.” It was necessary to loosen the blockage quickly because as
pressure built up inside the bosh, the stack was in danger of collapsing. If the bosh ruptured,
molten iron and slag spewed into the casting shed causing severe, and many times, fatal injuries.
The bridge men watched the charge carefully and were quick to notice when it stopped
moving through the bosh. When a blockage occurred, they first turned the blast off and on
several times in rapid succession. If that didn’t dislodge the blockage, a bridge man ran a long
iron rod inside the furnace from the top to try to “unstick” the charge. If neither procedure
worked, the tapholes (sic.) were opened to let the iron and slag run out of the hearth and iron
rods were run up the bosh from the hearth to dislodge the blockage. A few ironworks kept a

Page 38
small cannon on hand to remove the “frozen” charge. The cannon was loaded with small shot
and fired upward to dislodge the blockage.
A piece of iron that hardened early inside the furnace was called a salamander.
Often shaped like a salamander, it formed a large obstruction and caused the charge to freeze.
Very large pieces of prematurely solidified iron were referred to as bears.
. . .charcoal, [which was] made by burning wood slowly with little or no oxygen, was the
preferred fuel. Wood in its natural state contained too much moisture to provide a fire intense
enough to melt bog ore. Slow burning removed the moisture and left a fuel that, when fed a blast
of air, would reach temperatures hot enough to liquefy iron ore.
Woodcutters and/or colliers set to work felling the trees on the site. The best trees for charcoal
making were hardwoods, such as chestnut, maple and oak. The trees were cut during the winter
months when the sap wasn’t running. As a result, the wood dried better and the charcoal
produced was hard and heavy. The wood was cut to 4-foot lengths and stacked in billets 2 to 6
inches square.
Coaling began in May and continued through the early fall. Charcoal hearths were built
on a level spot. The area selected for the hearth was large enough to contain a pile of wood 30 to
50 feet in diameter and was protected from the wind. The men who worked the charcoal pits
were called colliers.
A pole or “fagan” was placed in the center of the hearth. At least 10 feet or more in
height, the fagan was green wood and didn’t burn easily. Lapwood (sic.), short, small pieces of
wood, was used to build a three-cornered chimney around the fagan. Billets were then placed
snugly against the chimney. The first section or tier, called the “foot” was about 4 feet high. The
second tier, called the “waist” was also 4 feet high. It was placed upon the first tier. The collier
carefully built the mound around the chimney, alternately adding billets to the foot and then to
the waist to prevent reeling and twisting. As the mound grew in height, the top of the billets
sloped toward the chimney. Lapwood (sic.) was used to fill the cracks and spaces. The tier above
the waist was called the “shoulders” and the top tier was known as the “head.” Billets smaller in
diameter were used for those tiers. They were placed horizontally around the chimney. A foot
wide hole was left over the chimney and small vent holes about 1 foot from the ground were
opened around the sides. It took about 30 cords of wood to construct a charcoal pit, equivalent to
a 1-acre woodlot. The huge mound was covered with thin layers of leaves, earth and charcoal
dust. The covering was necessary to control the burn.
The collier filled the chimney with wood chips and dropped in burning tinder and ashes
to start a fire. He opened and closed the side vents as needed to provide a sufficient draft. When
the chimney was thoroughly heated, he added dust to the mound and closed the top. It was the
collier’s job to make sure the fire didn’t burn too hot. When that happened, he was in danger of
losing the entire mound as well as his life.
As the wood slowly reduced to charcoal, the mound began to sink. When holes and soft
spots called “mulls” appeared in the covering the collier dug those areas out and filled them with
dust. To do that, he walked on the hot, smoking covering. It was imperative that no air be
allowed to enter the mound because oxygen-rich air created the risk of a major fire. Sometimes
he used a long iron rod to probe inside the mound to “settle” hot coals.
Dust was continually added to the settling and shrinking mound until it stopped
“smoking.” When smoking ceased, the pit was allowed to cool for 4-5 days. The charcoal was
then raked out carefully, a little at a time. The collier was always alert for embers and kept a
barrel of water nearby to douse an unexpected blaze. Wooden rakes and carrying baskets were

Page 39
used to avoid damaging the fragile charcoal. The coaling process took 2 to 2 ½ weeks and
yielded 30-35 bushels of charcoal per cord of wood burned.
The charcoal was stored in a cooling shed for a day or so to make sure no embers
remained. It was then shoveled into a storage area. It deteriorated if left in storage too long and
was generally used within a few weeks.
The collier was kept very busy during the coaling season. Pits were built 100 feet or so
apart to allow him working room as well as to keep fires from spreading. The pits required
supervision twenty-four hours a day. Several colliers were able to tend 8 or 9 pits at a time . . .
Arch: A curved masonry construction that spans an opening.
Bear: A large solid mass of furnace charge.
Bellows: A leather or leather and wood box with flexible sides that expand and contract; air
enters through a side vent and is expelled through a nozzle.
Billet: A “packet” of wood usually cut to 4 foot lengths and 2 to 6” square.
Binder: Cross-rods inserted in blast furnace masonry to prevent reeling and twisting.
Blast: A blowing of air into the furnace.
Blast Furnace: A furnace with a tall shaft; operated by a blast of forced air.
Blockage: A large “frozen” mass that blocks the flow of charge through the stack.
Bloom: A mass of wrought iron produced in an early forge.
Bloomery: A forge that made wrought iron blooms.
Bog Ore: Iron ore found in wet, swampy areas.
Bosh: The bottom of the furnace cavity; sloped inward.
Cast Iron: An iron that contains a large amount of carbon.
Charcoal: Carbon made by burning or charring wood without air.
Charcoal Pit: An earth-covered mound used to char wood.
Charge: A specific weight of ore, shells and fuel put into the furnace.
Charge Hole: A large hole at the top of the furnace into which the charge was dumped.
Charging Ramp: A slanted bridge extending from the bottom of the furnace to the top; used to
transport the charge.
Coaling: A name for making charcoal.
Cold Blast: Furnace blast at outside or air temperature.
Collier: A charcoal maker.
Crucible: Bottom part of the bosh used for melting iron.
Draft: A blast of air from the bellows that maintained burning/combustion in the furnace.
Fagan: A pole of green wood used to help form the chimney in a charcoal pit.
Flux: A material added to the charge that combined with the impurities in the melting ore to form
Forge: A term that includes a furnace or a hearth where iron is heated before shaping.
Hearth: The floor of the furnace.
Hot Blast: A preheated blast of air.
Ingot: A bar of cast iron.
Lapwood: Small, short pieces of wood.
Lock: A structure placed between two bodies of water that served to raise or lower the level of
one to equal that of the other.
Mound: A large, carefully stacked pile of wood to be covered and charred; a charcoal pit.

Page 40
Mulls: Soft spots in the covering of a charcoal pit.
Pig Iron: A cast iron run directly from the furnace into channels cut into sand; the channels
resembled a sow nursing piglets.
Salamander: A piece of hardened iron that obstructed the furnace; shape was similar to that of a
Schooner: Sailing vessel with two masts used to transport ingots of pig iron from the locks at
Nassawango Creek to manufacturers bordering the Chesapeake Bay.
Slag: A covering that formed on molten iron as a result of combining flux with the impurities in
the ore; a waste product poured or skimmed off.
Slag Taphole: An opening in the furnace above the level of the molten iron through which slag
was poured.
Smelting: The process of melting ore to obtain iron.
Stove: A special box used to preheat the blast; was placed at the top of the stack to utilize hot
gases or was separate from the furnace.
Taphole: An opening in the furnace that allowed molten iron to pour.
Tapping or Tapped: Opening the taphole to allow molten metal or run from the furnace.
Tuyere: An iron nozzle through which blast was sent to the furnace.
Wrought Iron: An iron that contains very little carbon and is easily hammered.”
N3: Blast Furnace Schematic
This schematic sketch on the next page gives a very basic concept of iron smelting. This
could be the basic design used on Lawson’s Fork Creek. There are many variations of method,
but the concept is fairly uniform. Charcoal, iron ore, and limestone are transported to the
blasting furnace charging hole over a charging ramp. In a mix approved by the iron master, it is
dumped into the furnace and the charcoal ignited, as directed by the iron master. To facilitate
reaching intense heat, a bellows is used. Some used more than one bellows. The designs vary.
Some used a waterwheel to raise the bellows to a given height, then “trip” releasing support for
the bellows. A heavy weight would fall and hence a “blast’ of air would enter the furnace-- thus
the term “blast furnace.” The process would be repeated. Some used the waterwheel to close the
bellows and a counterweight to open.
In this sketch, water from a good source operates a waterwheel which turned cams and
pumped the bellows forcing air (hence oxygen) into the furnace. The water leaves the premises
through a leat. The waterwheel in this sketch is an overshot waterwheel (water entered the wheel
from the top)--some were undershot (waterwheel sat directly in the stream and water exerted
force from the bottom--this seems to be the method of the upper iron works as is evidenced by
the sluice). The lower iron works probably used an overshot, as is evidenced by the dam. When
the contents of the crucible became molten the impurities combined with the limestone, and
being lighter, rose. The molten iron, being heavier, settled in the crucible at the bottom. In the
appropriate order, the iron master directed removal of the slag (impurities) to be disposed of and
the molten iron into a pig bed and where molds were formed for transporting. At this point, it
was called “pig iron” because the mold resembled a sow nursing her piglets.

Page 41

Page 42
APPENDIX O (See Appendix A, p. 11)
John Thomas
N. Louise Bailey and Elizabeth Ivey Cooper, Biographical Directory of the South
Carolina House of Representatives, Vol. III, 1775-1790, (Columbia, South Carolina: University
of South Carolina Press, 1981), pp. 708-709. The following is a direct quote:
“THOMAS, JOHN (Sr.) (1720-1811). Father of JOHN THOMAS, JR. (1751-1819).
John Thomas was born 5 April 1720 in Cardiff, Wales. With his family he immigrated to
Chester County, Pennsylvania. During the French and Indian War, he served under General
Edward Braddock and participated in the battle at Fort Duquesne (July 1755). Moving to South
Carolina circa 1755, Thomas settled first near Fishing Creek in Camden District. Before the
outbreak of the American Revolution, he relocated (ca. 1762) and resided near Fairforest Creek
in the area that became Spartanburg County. Here, he helped found the Fairforest Presbyterian
Church. After the war, he moved to Greenville District.
Active in the military, Thomas took part in the Cherokee War (1759-1761). At the
beginning of the Revolution, he supported the Whig cause and helped organize the Spartan
Regiment of militia (August 1775). Elected colonel of this regiment, he was involved in the
Snow Campaign (December 1775) and the expedition against the Cherokee Indians (July-
October 1776). Thomas served as colonel of the Spartan Regiment until Charleston fell to the
British (May 1780). Accepting parole from the British, he returned home. In the summer 1780,
he was arrested by the enemy and spent fourteen months in prison at Ninety Six and Charleston.
In addition to is military service, Thomas represented the Lower District Between Broad and
Saluda Rivers in the second Provincial Congress (1775-1776) and First General Assembly
(1776). He was also a member of the Second General Assembly (1776-1778). Locally, he
served on the committee to enforce the Continental Association in the fork between the Broad
and Saluda rivers (1775) and as commissioner of location for the north side of the Saluda River
in Ninety Six District (1784).
Before moving from Pennsylvania to South Carolina, Thomas was married circa 1740 to
Jane Black, daughter of Robert and Ann Black. They were the parents of nine Children: John,
Jr., Robert (1753-1781), Abram (1755-1780), William Davies 91756-1814), Ann (m. Joseph
McJunkin), Jean (m. Joseph McCool), Martha (b. 1744?; m. Josiah Culberson), Letitia (m. James
Lusk), and Ester (m. Robert Carter), Jane Black Thomas predeceased her husband on 16 April
1811. John Thomas died on 2 October 1811 in Greenville District. In his will, written 18 April
1811, he indicated that he owned at least twelve slaves.
Second Provincial Congress
Lower District Between
Broad and Saluda Rivers
First General Assembly
Lower District Between
Broad and Saluda Rivers
Second General Assembly

Page 43
South Carolina County Maps (Wisconsin: Thomas Publications, Ltd.), p.110. The Lawson’s Fork Creek is located
in Spartanburg County, South Carolina. It is formed from headwaters in the northwestern quadrant of the county.
Fawn Branch, Shoally Creek, and Meadow Creek to the east of Inman, South Carolina, contribute to its formation.
It is a tributary of the Pacolet River.
Margaret M. Hofmann, Colony of North Carolina 1735-1764, Vol. 1, pp. 42. It is named after an early settler by
the name of Lawson. In a North Carolina Land Patent granted to Roger Lawson, dated February 23, 1754, we find
the patent to be on the south side of Broad River of the south side of Pacolet on a large creek now called “Lawson’s
Creek.” (Also see endnote #48 [caveat].)
North Carolina State Archives, “File No. 296, Roger Lawson,” 1754 & “File No. 929, Roger Lawson,” 1754,
<>, (7/15/2009). When the warrant was issued, it was just on “a large creek.” When the
survey and grant issued, it was now called “Lawsons creek (sic.).” (Also see endnote #48 [caveat].)
David Ramsay, M.D., Ramsay’s History of South Carolina: From Its First Settlement in 1670 to the Year 1808,
Vol. 2, (South Carolina: W.J. Duffie, 1858), p. 307. Quote from book: “The first iron works in South Carolina were
erected in the upper country by Mr. Buffington in 1773. These were destroyed by the tories in the revolutionary
war, but several have been built since the peace of 1783.”
Rev. J.D. Bailey, “Spartanburg History: An Address by Rev. J.D. Bailey delivered at Glendale May 11, 1901,” Just
Cowpens and Ironworks, pp. 17-18. Quote from address: “Consequently, Draper, the historian, says that Col.
William Wofford ‘early emigrating to the upper country of South Carolina where, on Pacolet river he erected noted
iron works.’ He should have said Lawson’s Fork of Pacolet river. Ramsey in his history of the State says that the
first iron ore works in South Carolina were erected within the borders of the present county of Spartanburg in 1773.
Then we may safely say that in the year 1773 Col. William Wofford erected his, afterwards famous, Iron Works on
Lawson’s Fork. The site of the works was on the south bank of this stream, at the head of the present Glendale
pond, and about one hundred and twenty-five yards below the crossing of the Electric Railway. Until a few years
ago, when the pond was raised, a part of the old mill was visible, but since that time it is wholly submerged beneath
the water. It will be noticed that in the pages of history, these works are called Berwick’s Iron Works, and
Buffington’s Iron Works, as well as Woffords Iron Works. We have the solution of this. Draper says: ‘It was
probably on the fall of Charleston, when his (i.e. Col Wofford), iron works were destroyed, that he, to avoid the
British and Tories, who were over-running South Carolina, retired to the Upper Catawba, purchasing a fine tract of
nine hundred acres, with improvements, of one Armstrong, an enterprising pioneer in the Turkey Cove.’ About one
thing Draper is certainly mistaken, and that is the works were not immediately destroyed after the fall of Charleston.
On the 29
of September, 1780, the over-mountain men who were enroute to King’s Mountain, stopped at the home
of Col. Wofford which as then at Turkey Cove, in North Carolina . . . To recapitulate, Col. Wofford erected the
works in 1773, on Oct. 23, 1779, he sold them to the Berwicks, who owned them at the time of their destruction;
soon afterwards Joseph Buffington owned large adjacent lands and possibly the site itself. Hence, it is not hard to
see how they came to be called Wofford’s, Berwick’s and Buffington’s Iron Works.”
Dr. J.B.O. Landrum, History of Spartanburg County: Embracing an Account of Many Important Events, and
Biographical Sketches of Statesmen, Divines and other Public Mean, and the Names of Many Others Worthy of
Record in the History of Their County, (Atlanta, Georgia: The Franklin Prtg. and Pub. Co., 1900), pp. 117-118.
Quote from book: “In ‘Ramsey’s History of South Carolina’ (Appendix, p. 307), we learn that the first iron ore
works in South Carolina were erected within the borders of the present county of Spartanburg in 1773. These have
been called in the pages of history Buffington’s Iron Works, Wofford’s Iron Works, and Berwick’s Iron Works, but,
from what we have been able to gather, they were on and the same, possibly a joint stock company . . . Wofford’s
Iron Works, a name that has been made famous in the pages of our Revolutionary history, by reason of the battle
that was fought near by, were located on the left bank of the stream, Lawson’s Fork, about a half mile above the

Page 44
present manufacturing village of Glendale . . . In another volume* (*See ‘Colonial and Revolutionary History of
Upper South Carolina,’ p. 341) we have given some account of the raid of the notorious ‘Bloody Bill’ Cunningham
to the upcountry of South Carolina in November, 1781. One of his most infamous acts of open incendiarism (sic.)
was the destruction by fire of this valuable property, which doubtless, by reason of the death of Mr. Berwick, a few
years later, were never rebuilt.”
A History of Spartanburg County, American Guide Series (Illustrated), Compiled by the Spartanburg Unit of the
Writers’ Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of South Carolina, (South Carolina: The
Spartanburg Branch American Association of University Women, 1940), p. 67. Quote from book: “The lands
Buffington bought and leased for his plant lay in the region claimed by North and South Carolina before the running
of the boundary line in 1772, and he had much trouble about his titles, for William Wofford had established his
claim to the iron works tract on the basis of North Carolina grants. Buffington apparently operated with borrowed
capital, and soon lost control of the iron works, which became known as Wofford’s Iron Works, and kept that name
in popular speech until burned by Bloody Bill Cunningham in November 1781. After that it was for a time called
the ‘old iron works’ . . . The record of when the works were rebuilt and how Buffington regained control of the plant
has not been found, but in 1785 and act of the legislature ordered the sale of Buffington’s Iron Works, to satisfy the
unpaid debt on them. Possibly at this sale William Pool acquired the works, for there can be little doubt that this
same site (which is today Glendale) was that of Poole’s Iron Works.”
William Edwin Hemphill (ed.) and Wylma Anne Wates (asst. ed.), The State Records of South Carolina, Extracts
from the Journals of the Provincial Congresses of South Carolina, 1775-1776 (Columbia, South Carolina: South
Carolina Archives Dept., 1960), pp. 162-163. Quote from book: “Resolved, That a premium of one thousand
pounds currency be given to the person who shall erect a bloomery in this colony, that shall first produce,
manufactured thereat, one ton of good bar iron: A premium of eight hundred pounds to the person erecting another
bloomery, whereat the next like quantity of bar iron shall have been manufactured: And a premium of seven
hundred pounds to the person erecting a third such work, whereat shall have been manufactured a like quantity of
like iron. These premiums over and above the common prices of such iron.”
Bobby Gilmer Moss (ed.), Uzal Johnson, Loyalist Surgeon: A Revolutionary War Diary (Blacksburg, South
Carolina: Scotia Hibernia Press, 2000), p. 18. Quote from footnote in book: “William Henry Drayton (1742-1779)
was born near Charles Town, S.C. After completing his education in England at Westminister (sic.) School and
Oxford, he returned to S.C., where he married Dorothy Golightly on 29 March 1764. He turned his attention to
operating a plantation and to politics. He made himself unpopular by opposing the non-importation movement and
other acts of those who opposed the rule of the British government. He went to England but returned to America to
accept appointment as a judge. Soon he realized that he could be removed by an appointment made by Parliament.
When he was suspended form the Council because of his views he embraced the American cause with zeal. In the
summer of 1775, he toured the back country, trying to win to inhabitants to the American cause. On 1 November
1775 he was elected president of the Provincial Congress. Later, he was in the Continental Congress. DAB, V,
North Carolina Office of Archives & History—Department of Cultural Resources, “Troublesome Iron Works,”
2007, <>, (June 15, 2009). Quote from Website: “Used in
the Revolution. Greene’s Army camped there after Battle of Guilford Courthouse, 1781. Washington visited, 1791.
Site is 1 ½ mile north. Essay: By 1770 an early colonial ironworks had been established on Troublesome Creek in
present-day Rockingham County. The ironworks, initially called the Speedwell Furnace, played a significant role in
the Revolutionary War. Before and after the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in March 1781, both British and Whig
troops camped at the site. George Washington retraced General Greene’s retreat from Guilford Courthouse during
his southern tour in 1791, and visited the ironworks at that time. The original site was partially destroyed by fire and
rebuilt in 1915. Joseph Buffington, an experienced Quaker iron master originally from Chester County,
Pennsylvania, constructed Speedwell Furnace on Troublesome Creek. He purchased the “mine hill” in southern
Rockingham County, as well as the land for the iron works. Additionally, Buffington constructed a rock dam to
create waterpower, a bloomery for pig, and an iron forge for finishing items. Unfortunately, Buffington soon
discovered that the iron deposits in the area contained far too much titaniferous dioxide to produce valuable iron.

Page 45
He sold the works in 1772, and the site passed through the hands of various people through the course of the
Revolutionary War. In February 1781, General Nathaniel Greene led his Patriot troops over the Dan River into
Virginia as Cornwallis’s British forces pursued them, camping overnight at the Troublesome Creek works. Soon
after, Greene’s forces returned to North Carolina, where they camped at various locations including Speedwell
Furnace. Greene created earthen fortifications and gathered ammunition. After the Battle of Guilford Courthouse
on March 15, 1781, General Greene continued to plan for a second attack by Cornwallis, returning his troops to the
works at Troublesome Creek. For five days Whig forces camped at Speedwell Furnace, pursuing Cornwallis to
Ramsey’s Mill. After the Revolutionary War, three Whig veterans purchased the ironworks: Colonel Archibald
Lytle of Hillsborough, and brothers Peter and Constantine Perkins from Virginia. In 1782 the new owners
established a grist and flour mill at the site. Purchasing the site in 1790 were George Hairston and John Marr of
Virginia, who hired Benjamin Jones to manage the works. Jones managed the facilities between 1790 and 1792,
hosting President George Washington for breakfast at the works in 1791. The Troublesome Creek Ironworks
continued to operate under various owners through the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, producing lowgrade
(sic.) iron ore and other goods. In 1954 local historian James McClamroch purchased the site and donated it to the
Rockingham Historical Society. References: Lindley S. Butler, “Speedwell Furnace: The Ironworks on
Troublesome Creek,” Rockingham Country Historical Society pamphlet (1972), Patrick O’Kelley, Nothing but
Blood and Slaughter, III (2005), Archibald Henderson, Washington’s Southern Tour, 1791 (1923), William S.
Powell, ed., Encyclopedia of North Carolina (2006), Location: US 158 and SR 2422 (Monroeton road) at
Monroeton, County: Rockingham, Original Date Cast: 1939.”
“Iron-Works,” Supplement to the South Carolina Gazette, (Charles Town), Monday, September 19, 1774, No.
2014, p. 2, col. 3. Quote of article: “Joseph Buffington, Having lately purchased the High-Shoals or Great Falls of
South Catawba River, in Tryon County, North-Carolina, within a few Miles of the South-Carolina Line; one of the
most advantageous Situations for Water Works he has ever seen, where he has already built a Saw-Mill, and nearly
completed a Grist-Mill; where there is Water sufficient to work 20 or 30 Mills, a natural Fall of between 20 and 30
Feet, and the Seat out of Danger of Freshes (sic.); in a helthy (sic.) plentiful Country, of good Land, well timbered,
with Plenty of Iron Ore thereon, which he will presume to say, is as good as any that has yet been made Use of in
America; and where Hundreds of Barrels of Shad may be caught with Ease (sic.):--having settled himself thereon,
with a View To erect IRON-WORKS, It being a Part of the Country where Iron can scarse (sic.) be had, at Five
Pence Sterling per Pound;--but, finding himself, at present, unable to build and hold above Two Thirds of an Iron
Work; and being an entire Stranger here, he takes this Method of acquainting any Gentlemen willing to encourage,
or be concerned in, the manufacturing of IRON, that if they will immediately furnish him with the Sum of £. 300
North-Carolina Currency, and £. 400 Value in Goods, he will lodge the Conveyances for his Lands, Mills, &c. in
their Hands for Re-payment of the same, for the said Sum, and oblige himself to bring the said Works to Perfection,
to the Satisfaction of any reasonable Iron-Master in America.—He is so well convinced that the IRON-WORKS will
succeed in that Part of the Country, having been brought up entirely in that Business, that he is desirous of beginning
immediately, with Lots of Time: Therefore, whoever may be inclined to encourage, or be concerned with him, are
desired to apply to him, at Mr. HERMAN NEUFER’S in King-Street, before Tuesday next, the 27 Instant, where
they may receive further Information, in Regard the these Matters and to his Character. N.B. A few good active
NEGROES that could learn to work at the Iron-Works, would be very advantageous in this Business.”
R.W. Gibbes, M.D., Documentary History of the American Revolution: Consisting of Letters and Papers Relating
to the Contest for Liberty, Chiefly in South Carolina, from Originals in the Possession of the Editor, and Other
Sources. 1764-1776, (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1855), p. 106. Quote from book: “Resolved, That the Hon.
W.H. Drayton, and the Rev. Wm. Tennant, be the two gentlemen to make a progress into the back country, to
explain to the people the causes of the present disputes, between Great Britain and the American Colonies.
Resolved, That the following commissions and powers be given to the Hon. William Henry Drayton, and the Rev.
Wm. Tennant. South Carolina—In the Council of Safety. July 23, 1775. The Council of Safety elected and chosen
by the provincial Congress, begins to be holden (sic.) the first day of June last; by these presents testify—that they
have nominated appointed and commissioned the Hon. Wm. Drayton and the Rev. Wm. Tennant to go into the
interior parts of this Colony at the public expense, there to explain to the people at large the nature of the unhappy
public disputes between great Britain and the American Colonies—to endeavor to settle all political disputes
between the people—to quiet their minds, and to enforce the necessity of a general union in order to preserve
themselves and their children from slavery; and that the said W. H. Drayton and W. Tennant may proceed in this
business with safety and advantage to the public—all the friends of the liberties of America are hereby requested to

Page 46
afford them every necessary aid, assistance and protection. By order of the Council of Safety. HENRY LAURENS,
President. South Carolina—In the Council of Safety. Charles Town, 23d July, 1775. GENTLEMEN,--In order to
give you every necessary and proper support and protection in your progress into the country in execution of our
commissions of this date, you are hereby authorized to call upon all and every officer of the militia and rangers for
assistance, support, and protection; and they and each of them are hereby ordered to furnish such assistance, support,
and protection, as you shall deem necessary. By order of the Council of Safety. HENRY LAURENS, President.
Hon. W. H. Drayton. Rev. Wm. Tennant. Ordered that the above Commission and powers be engrossed.”
John Drayton, L.L.D., Memoirs of the American Revolution, from its Commencement to the Year 1776, Inclusive;
as Relating to the State of South-Carolina: and Occasionally Referring to the States of North-Carolina and Georgia,
Vol. 1, (Charleston, South Carolina: A. F. Miller, 1821), p. 411. Quote from book: “In the mean time, Mr. Drayton
has gone up to his iron works, and to the people about Lawson’s Fork; where, he will do something.”
Collections of the South-Carolina Historical Society, Vol. 2, (Charleston, South Carolina: South-Carolina
Historical Society, 1858), p. 64. Quote from book: “Resolved, That the Rev. Mr. Oliver Hart be applied to, to join
Mr. Drayton and Mr. Tennent, in their progress to the Back Country. And the following letter was written by Mr.
President to Mr. Hart: Rev. Sir—The Council of Safety having had it represented to them that your presence in the
Western and Northern frontiers of this Colony may be of great service, by explaining to the inhabitants, in a proper
and true light, the nature of the present dispute unhappily subsisting between Great Britain and the American
Colonies, have ordered me to request you will join the Rev. Mr. Tennent, and the Hon. William Henry Drayton,
esq., who are going into those parts of the Colony, and who have particular directions from the Council on this head,
which those particular directions from the Council on this head, which those gentlemen will lay before you for your
further information. Your compliance will be esteemed by the Council of Safety as an instance of your zeal in the
public service, when the aid of every freeman and lover of constitutional liberty is loudly called for. State House,
July, 1775. The Rev. Mr. Oliver Hart, Charles-Town.”
William T. Graves (transcribed and annotated), “Reverend Oliver Hart’s Diary of the Journey to the Backcounty,”
Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution, Vol. 2, No. 4, pg. 28, April 2005, . Quotes from magazine:
“Friday Augt. 18
: . . . We then took up into the country for Lawson’s Fork (Footnote: This is a fork on the Pacolet
River in Spartanburg County. See, Mills, Atlas, Spartanburg County Map), came in the evening to Captain John
Woods (Footnote: No such officer is listed by Moss. However, in the pension application filed by George Salmon,
he states that he served as a lieutenant in the Spartanburg militia under Capt. John Wood. See, Saturday Augt. 19
. . . Rode this morning from
Capt: John Woods to his brother James Woods, about 6 miles . . . Monday, Augt. 21
: Rode to Capt: Waford’s
where I met with Mr. Drayton, and a large number of people assembled together; Mr. Rees opened the meeting by
singing and prayer, then Mr. Drayton spoke to them, above an hour, on the state of affairs in the nation; the people
gave good attention, and upwards of 70 signed the association. A beef was barbecued, on which we dined, I then
rode home with Capt. John Wood, and lodged there.”
A.S. Salley, Jr. (ed.), Documents Relating to the History of South Carolina During the Revolutionary War,
(Columbia, South Carolina: The State Company, 1908), pp. 3-4. Quoted petition: “[Petition and Remonstrance of
Joseph Buffington to the Provincial Congress.] South Carolina To the Honourable (sic.) Wm: Henry Drayton
Esquire, and the rest of the Gentlemen Members, of the South Carolina Provincial Congress, now in Charles-Town
Assembled, The Petition and Remonstrance of Joseph Buffington (Iron Master) and now A resident of Said
Province—Sheweth (sic.), That You Petitionor (sic.) who is lately removed from the province of North Carolina
where he had resided, for many Years and carried on with great Success in the business of Making of Car Iron in all
its branches, from an Ore, as may appear from many Certificats (sic.) under the hands of Several Gentlemen of
Charrector (sic.) residing in that province That on Your Petitionors (sic.) Arrival in this Goverment (sic.), upon a
strict and Deligent (sic.) Serch (sic.) for Iron Ore he fortunately discovered a large body not Inferior to any hitherto
discovered in the Northern Colonies, being on a water Course, well known in this province by the name of Lawsons
fork (sic.) a branch of Broad River, where it appear’s (sic.) to your Petitionor (sic.) that Nature had designed and laid
it out, to Every Advantage necessary for Carrying on so valuable and and (sic.) Necessary branch of business and
perticularly (sic.) in so remote a part of this province, being About Two Hundred and Thirty Miles distantt (sic.)
from Charles Town, That after Your Petitionor (sic.) had made repeated Essays or Trials of the Ore and finding it to
be very good and Equal in fineness to any he had heretofore wrought to the Northward, he was Induced and

Page 47
Incouraged (sic.) by the whole of the Inhabitants in that part of the Country to proceed to Errect (sic.) A Bloomery,
with great success untill (sic.) the work was above half Compleated (sic.) in such a workmanlike manner as to meet
with the General Approbation of those, well skill’d and avers’d by long Experience and knowledge in Iron works in
other provinces, but your petitionor’s (sic.) not being as present in Such Easy Circumstance for want of Ready
money to Enable him to Carry his Laudible (sic.) Design farther into Execution without assistance, he Greatly
Dispairs (sic.) of being able to Compleat (sic.) his undertakeing (sic.), Consequence of which will tend to the Ruin
of himself and his family, and an Injury to the province in General Your Petitioner therefore Relying on the wisdom
and Goodness of this Congress, wishes, and hopes that upon their Serious Reflection of the Benifit (sic.) and utility
which may hereafter accrue to this province in General by giving proper encouragement to works of this nature, he
hopes; and will Engage that the Bloomery which he has hitherto Carried on by his own labour (sic.) and Industery
(sic.) will be Completely (sic.) finished within Two years to the Satisfaction of the Congress and the Province in
General; And in Order to Secure to the public Such Monies as may be thought Necessary or Sufficient to finish the
said undertakeing (sic.), your Petitionor (sic.) proposes, that if the Congress will be pleased to appoint Colonel John
Thomas Together with any one or more Gentlemen, to Take a Bond from your Petitionor (sic.) with personal
Security, to Reimburt (sic.) the like Sum with Interest (if required) to such person or person as shall be appointed to
receive the same on behalf of the public in some reasonable time, after the works are finished, and further, he
preposes (sic.) That after the works are completed (sic.); The Congress on Behalf of the public shall be Intitled (sic.)
to one moiety or half part of all Iron &ca. as shall be hereafter made at these works and for the better and more
Effectual Security of this his promise and undertakeings (sic.) he propses (sic.) to make over the whole of the land
wherein the ore, is and the works are to be Erected in such a manner as shall or may be thought more Elegeble (sic.)
by this Congress—Joseph Buffington Charles Town Feby (sic.) 17
1776 Endorsed: The Petition & Remonstrance
of Joseph Buffington (footnote: The following names, in the handwriting of William Henry Drayton, are written
below this endorsement: Col. Powell, Col. Thomas, Mr. Kershaw, Major Henderson, Dr. Farrar, Col. Richardson,
Mr.—Prince, Mr.—Tennent).”
State Records of South Carolina, Extracts from the Journals of the Provincial Congresses of South Carolina,
1775-1776 (Columbia, South Carolina: South Carolina Archives Dept., 1960), pp. 249-250. Quote from book: “The
report of the Committee, to whom were referred the petitions of Joseph Buffington and William Wofford, Esq.,
being taken into consideration, and amended; the Congress came to the following resolutions thereupon: Whereas it
appears, That the fifty acres of land, upon which iron works are to be erected by Joseph Buffington, are not his, but
the property of William Wofford, Esq., or others; and that there is an incumbrance (sic.) upon the said works,
already begun; and that the carrying on the said works will be a public benefit: Therefore, Resolved, That the said
incumbrance (sic.), being two thousand three hundred and eighty-one pounds, eight shillings and ten pence half-
penny, due to the Hon. William-Henry Drayton, be paid; and that the sum of four thousand pounds be lent, for the
carrying on, and completing the said works, upon the following terms, viz. That when the said William Wofford, or
others, having legal right so to do, shall have made, to the said Joseph Buffington, good and sufficient title, in fee
simple, to the said fifty acres of land; saving to the said William Wofford, his heirs and assigns, that on no part of
the said fifty acres of land shall any grist or flour mill, to work by water, be erected, and that the water shall not be
stopped to the detriment of the said William Wofford, his heirs and assigns; and the said Joseph Buffington shall
then have made to John Neufville, William Gibbes, and Peter Bacot, Esquires, in trust for the public, good and
sufficient titles in fee simple, and also titles in like manner to one thousand acres of land, with timber, for fuel,
contiguous thereto, and Mr. Drayton shall have transferred to the said John Neufville, William Gibbes, and Peter
Bacot, Esquires, for the use of the public, all such securities as he may have for the payment to him of the said
incumbrance (sic.); then the said sum of two thousand three hundred and eighty-one pounds, eight shillings and ten
pence half-penny, shall, by the Commissioners of the Treasury, be paid to Mr. Drayton; and the said Commissioners
shall also then pay into the hands of Col. John Thomas, Capt. James Williams, and Mr. John Prince, the said sum of
four thousand pounds, to be, by them, expended and laid out, as Commissioners, for erecting and completing the
said works. And that, if the said sum of six thousand three hundred and eighty-one pounds, eight shillings and ten
pence half-penny, shall not, by the said Joseph Buffington, his heirs or assigns be repaid to the Commissioners of
the treasury for the time being, within four years next ensuing, then the said lands, with all the improvements
thereon, shall be sold, and the public reimbursed the said six thousand three hundred and eighty-one pounds, eight
shillings and ten pence half-penny, of the money arising from the sale; and the overplus (sic.), if any, be paid to the
said Joseph Buffington, his heirs or assigns. And whereas the establishment of another iron work will also be of

Page 48
public utility: Therefore, Resolved, That the sum of three thousand pounds, for that purpose, be granted to William
Wofford; upon his giving full and sufficient Security for the re-payment of the same, within four years, to the
commissioners of the Treasury for the time being. Provided nevertheless, That the said sum three thousand pounds
shall not be lent to the said William Wofford, until he shall have made, or caused to be made, good titles as aforesaid
to the said Joseph Buffington, to the said fifty acres of land. And also, It is hereby declared, That the two iron works
above specified, shall not be intitled (sic.) to receive the premiums already declared for the encouragement of iron
Brent H. Holcombe, South Carolina Deed Abstracts 1776-1783, Books Y-4 through H-5, p. 88. Regarding the fifty
acres, quote from book: “B-5, 270-271 . . . John (sic.) Mackilroy of Fairforest Settlement, Province of South
Carolina, Gunsmith to Joseph Buffington, Ironmaster, of Tryon County Province of North Carolina, for £5000 SC
money, 50 acres on Lawsons (sic.) Fork . . . Lower end of 350 acres granted 22 Dec 1768 . . .” Deed to Buffington
dated 1776. Signed James Mackelroy (sic.) recorded 9-13-1779. For plat of 50 acres, see deed. For grant to
Mackelroy, see File #805, Grant Number 75, Bk 23, p. 327 for 350 acres dated 12-22-1768. For plat see File #0265
James Mackilroy, 350 acres both sides Lawson’s Fork. North Carolina State Archives. ; South Carolina Department
of Archives & History, “Mackelroy, James to Joseph Buffington, Lease and Release and Plat,” 1779, S. S363001,
Vol. 05B0, p. 00269, <>,
This deed has not as yet been found but is treated as having occurred in other deeds. See deed of William Wofford
to his son Benjamin Wofford, dated November 20, 1790, and recorded November 11, 1794, in Deed Book C, Pages
304-305, Register of Deeds for Spartanburg County, South Carolina. It is a grant of twenty acres. (Wofford had
reserved this acreage to himself and his wife Mary in his grant of a three-quarter interest to Simon Berwick, John
Berwick, and Charles Elliott.) The deed states it is from the 300 acres McKilroy granted to him. The deed also
states it is the land on which he (William Wofford) had lived.
Holcombe, pp. 88-89. For the security to the State, see p. 88, B-5, 274-275. For deed, see p. 89, B-5, 275-279.
Thomas Cooper, M.D.—L.D., The Statutes at Large of South Carolina; Edited, Under Authority of the
Legislature, Vol. 4, Containing the Acts from 1752, Exclusive, to 1786, Inclusive, Arranged Chronologically,
(Columbia, South Carolina: A.S. Johnston, 1838), pp. 404-405. Quote from book: “A.D. 1778, No. 1065. AN ACT
for vesting six hundred acres of land, whereon the iron works of Joseph Buffington are, in the Treasurers of this
State, for and upon certain uses and trusts; and also vesting another parcel of land in the said Treasurers, for the use
of this State. (Preamble) WHEREAS, the late Congress of this State, desirous of encouraging the manufacture of
iron within the same, have advanced, on loan, to Joseph Buffington, of Lawson’s Fork, in the said State, the sum of
six thousand three hundred and eighty-one pounds eight shillings and ten pence current money, for the carrying on
of such manufactory, on condition that William Woffard and others, having any title to fifty acres of land conveyed
to the said Joseph Buffington by James Macilroy, and whereon the said iron works were supposed to be erected at
the time of such loan, should release such their title therein to the said Joseph Buffington; and the said Joseph
Buffington, in consequence of such resolve, hath mortgaged to the public treasurers of the State aforesaid, the said
fifty acres of land, and a tract of one thousand acres conveyed to him by Thomas Ferguson, Esq. as a security for the
said sum of six thousand three hundred and eighty-one pounds eight shillings and ten pence, and in trust that, if the
said Joseph Buffington should not pay into the treasury of the State aforesaid the said sum of six thousand three
hundred and eighty-one pounds eight shillings and ten pence, within four years from the time of such mortgage, the
said fifty acres of land and the iron works thereon, and the said tract of one thousand acres, should be then sold by
the treasurers of the State for the time being, for the payment of the said sum of six thousand three hundred and
eighty-one pounds eight shillings and ten pence, paying the overplus (sic.) to the said Joseph Buffington, according
to the said resolve of Congress; and whereas, it is now found that the said iron works, by some mistake, are not
erected within the limits of the said Joseph Buffington’s tract of fifty acres, conveyed to him for the aforesaid James
Macilroy, as aforesaid, and by him mortgaged as aforesaid, but are without the same, and on lands not granted, but
still vacant, on Lawson’s Fork, a branch of Pacolet river, in the State aforesaid; and that William Woffard hath, by
fraudulent means, by warrant of survey, obtained in the name of Thomas Waddill, for the surveying of six hundred
acres, and by another warrant of survey, in the name of Robert Hamet, for the surveying of five hundred and fifty
acres, endeavoured (sic.) to obtain a grant for the nominal number of eleven hundred and fifty acres of land,
contiguous to the aforesaid tract of fifty acres, but in fact for a larger quantity of acres, so as to include the said iron

Page 49
works, to the great injury of the said Joseph Buffington, and to the prejudice of the security which is is (sic.) given
by him for the payment of the aforesaid sum of six thousand three hundred and eighty-one pounds eight shillings
and ten pence; fore remedy whereof, in order the more effectually to accomplish the end of the said resolve of
Congress, and the agreement of the said Joseph Buffington, I. Be it enacted by his Excellency John Rutledge, Esq.,
President and Commander-in-chief in and over the State of South Carolina, by the honorable the Legislative Council
and General Assembly of the said State, and by the authority of the same, That immediately after the passing of this
Act, it shall and may be lawful for the public treasurers of this State for the time being, and who are hereby directed
and required, to appoint a lawful surveyor to make a just and accurate survey of the number of acres contained in the
survey already made by the aforesaid William Woffard, and ascertain the exact number of acres contained in such
survey, and also to parcel off from the said number of acres, so surveyed, the quantity of six hundred acres, in a
distinct parcel or body, contiguous to the fifty acres conveyed to Joseph Buffington by James Macilroy, as aforesaid,
so as to include the iron works of the said Joseph Buffington; such survey to be returned, duly certified on oath, into
the treasury of this State, within four months thereafter. (The aforesaid lots to be accurately surveyed.) II. And be it
further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the parcel of six hundred acres of land, so to be surveyed as
aforesaid, together with all the buildings and improvements thereon, shall, immediately after and from the time of
such survey, become and is hereby declared to be vested in the commissioners of the treasury of the State aforesaid,
and their successors in the said office of treasurers, for the following uses and purposes, (that is to say,) in trust that
if the said Joseph Buffington shall, within four years next ensuing, from the eighteenth day of may, in the year of
our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, pay into the public treasury of this State, for the use of the
same, the aforesaid sum of six thousand three hundred and eighty-one pounds eight shillings and ten pence, without
interest, that then and in such case the said six hundred acres of land, with the buildings thereon, as aforesaid, shall
become vested in and remain the property of the said Joseph Buffington, his heirs and assigns, for ever (sic.); but if
in case the said Joseph Buffington shall not pay the said sum of sic thousand three hundred and eighty-one pounds
eight shillings and ten pence, within the time limited as aforesaid, that them and in such case the said commissioners
of the treasury of the State aforesaid, or their successors, shall sell and dispose of the same for the payment of the
said sum of six thousand three hundred and eighty-one pounds eight shillings and ten pence; and the balance of the
money arising form such sale, after deducting the usual commissions, shall be paid by the said commissioners of the
treasury to the said Joseph Buffington, his heirs or assigns. (Land vested in the public treasurers, for certain uses
and purposes.) III. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That after parceling and allotting the
aforesaid tract of six hundred acres, in manner as aforesaid, the remainder of the number of acres found by the
survey to be made and returned into the treasury of this State as aforesaid, shall become, and is hereby declared to
be, vested in the commissioners of the treasury of the State aforesaid, in trust, and to and for the uses of the said
State. (Disposal of overplus (sic.) of land, after the survey.) IV. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid,
That any grant which shall hereafter be made of any of the lands before mentioned, and to be so surveyed as directed
by this Act, by any person hereafter impowered (sic.) to grant any of the lands of this State, shall be null and void,
and of no force or effect whatever. (Grants of the said land, hereafter made, declared null and void.) HUGH
Speaker of the Legislative Council. THOMAS BEE, Speaker of the General Assembly. In the
Council Chamber, the 5
day of March, 1778. Assented to: J. RUTLEDGE.
Holcombe, p. 259. Lease and release dated August 18 & 19, 1779 (Deed Book H-5, 341-344); South Carolina
Department of Archives & History, “Buffington, Joseph and Wife to William Henderson, Lease and Release,” 1783,
S. S363001, Vol. 05H0, p. 00341,
<>, (8/1/2008); “Buffington,
Mary, Wife of Joseph Buffington to William Henderson, Renunciation,”1779, S. 136009, Vol. [1
year]. 1775, p.
00274, <>, (8/1/2008).
Bobby Gilmer Moss, Roster of South Carolina Patriots in the American Revolution, (Baltimore, Maryland:
Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1983), pp. 436-437. The identification of William Henderson is very tentative
but believed correct. There were at least three William Hendersons between the Broad and Saluda Rivers in this
time span. Quote from book: “Henderson, William, BLWt 1102-450-Lt. Col. B. 5 March 1748 d. 29 January
1787/1788 m. Mrs. Letitia (Davis) Nelson. He became a major in the Sixth Regiment on (29 February) 17 June
1775 and a lieutenant colonel on 16 September 1776. On 11 February 1780, he was transferred to the Third
Regiment and was taken prisoner at the fall of Charleston. He was exchanged during November 1780 and was

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transferred to the First Regiment on 1 January 1781. He was wounded in the battle at Eutaw Springs on 8
September 1781. On 30 September 1781, he was promoted to colonel. He served to the close of the war and during
1781 an1782 he was a brigadier general of state troops. P.I.; Heitman, p. 285; S.C.H.&G., VIII, 221; XXVIII, 108-
111; A.A. 3528; C383; E107; S254; N.A. 853; Journals; Drayton.”
Holcombe, p.108. Joseph Buffington purchased this one thousand acres from Thomas Ferguson May 9 & 10, 1776
(Deed Book C-5, 43-46); South Carolina Department of Archives & History, “Ferguson, Thomas to Joseph
Buffington, Lease and Release,” November 17, 1779, S. S363001, Vol. 05C0, p. 00043,
<>, (8/1/2008).
William Edwin Hemphill, Wylma Anne Wates, and R. Nicholas Osberg (eds.), Journals of the General Assembly
and House of Representatives 1776-1780, The State Records of South Carolina, published for the South Carolina
Department of Archives and History, (Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1970), p. 195.
Quote from book: “Saturday, September 4, 1779 . . . Mr. Justice Burke presented to the House of Petition of William
Henderson, Esq., and the same was received and read, setting forth, That to enable Joseph Buffington to complete
certain iron works he was erecting on Lawson, the Legislature had lent him £6,381:08:10 and vested in him 600
acres of land adjoining, to furnish fuel for the said works, on condition that the sum lent should be repaid by the 18
day of May next. That the petitioner hath lately purchased the said works and lands, but apprehends to 600 acres are
insufficient for the purpose intended. That there are about 2,924 acres of vacant lands adjacent to the said works fit
for the said and no other purpose. And praying that the same or such part thereof as may be thought sufficient be
vested in the petitioner, upon his paying into the Treasury the money lent to said Buffington within the time limited.
Ordered, That the Petition be referred to a Committee. And it is referred to Mr. Justice Burke, Capt. Caldwell, Capt.
Jones, Mr. Ferguson and Mr. Berwick.”
Columbian Herald, April 24, 1788, p.4, col. 2. Ad reads, emphasis theirs: “Pacolet Springs, and Valuable Iron
Works FOR SALE. On Thursday, The 15
day of May next, WILL BE SOLD, At PUBLIC AUCTION, Near the
Exchange, 4574 cres (sic.) of Land on Pacolet river and Lawson’s Fork (a branch of that river) containing the well
known valuable Iron Works, formerly Buffington’s and the highly (illegible) Pacolet Springs. The conditions will
be declared at the time of sale. 74 John W. Gibbs & Co.”
Salley, Jr., pp. 3-4.
State Records of South Carolina, Extracts from the Journals of the Provincial Congresses of South Carolina,
1775-1776 (Columbia, South Carolina: South Carolina Archives Dept., 1960), pp. 249-250.
Will Graves, “Henry Pettit, W5528,” Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pension Statements, June 18, 2006,
South Carolina Department of Archives and History, “Buffington, Joseph, Account Audited (File No. 883) of
Claims Growing Out of the American Revolution,”1776, S. S108092, Reel: 0016, Frame: 00059, 1776 C. or later,
<>, (August 1, 2008).
C. Leon Harris, “George Davidson, W283,” Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pension Statements,
N. Louise Bailey, Mary L. Morgan, and Carolyn R. Taylor, Biographical Directory of the South Carolina Senate
1776-1985, Vol. 1, (Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1986), pp. 132-133. Quote
from book: “BERWICK, SIMON (Berwicke) (d. 1783). Simon Berwick was a successful cordwainer and
ironmaster. In Charleston, he and his brother John (d. 1784) were the owners of a tanyard which provided the
leather for the shoes they made and sold (ca. 1760-1776). The brothers also were joint recipients of three grants for
a combined 700 acres at the fork of the Edisto River and for 500 acres in Orangeburg Township. Seventy-three
slaves were listed in his inventory, although an undisclosed number of them were also the property of his brother.
Acting on his own, Simon Berwick was the sole proprietor of an upcountry ironworks at Lawson’s Fork on the

Page 51
Pacolet River. During the American Revolution, he supplied the militia and Continental troops various sundries
including iron and horseshoes from his forge. In retaliation for his political leanings, a Tory unit led by William
Cunningham burned the Berwick Iron Works in November 1781. A leader of the mechanics faction, Berwick
served on the General Committee of the Non-Importation Association (1769) and on the committee which sought to
implement the Continental Association in St. Matthew Parish (1775). St. Matthew elected him to the First (1775)
and Second (1775-1776) Provincial Congresses and to the House for the First General Assembly (1776). The Upper
District Between (sic.) Broad and Saluda Rivers (Spartan) chose him as its representative to the state Senate for the
Fourth (1782) and Fifth (1783-1784) General Assemblies. Other offices he held included the following:
commissioner, for clearing New Cut (1777); tax inquirer and collector for the Upper District Between (sic.) Broad
and Saluda Rivers (1783); and commissioner, for dividing Ninety Six District into counties (1783). While traveling
from Charleston to his plantation in Ninety Six District following the first session (6 January-17 March 1783) of the
Fifth General Assembly, Simon Berwick was murdered 26 March 1783 approximately twelve miles north of
Dorchester. Fourth General Assembly Upper District Between Broad and Saluda Rivers 1782 Fifth General
Assembly Upper District Between Broad and Saluda Rivers 1783* [*SOURCES: Aud. Accts., 464. Biographical
Directory of the House, 1:156, 160, 171; 3:69-70. Charleston Co. Inventories, A(1783-1787), 112-13. Grand Jury
List, 1783. Landrum, Spartanburg County, pp. 13-14, 15. McCrady, 2: 651n. Pope, p.53. Reynolds & Faunt.
Royal Grants, 26: 198; 27: 224; 37: 310. Salley, Orangeburg County, p. 258. SCHM, 18: 39; 34: 202; 60: 126,
141n. SC Statutes, 4: 532, 561; 7: 522. Walsh, pp. 8, 50, 65.]”
Mabel L. Webber (ed.), “Marriage and Death Notices from The South Carolina Weekly Gazette,” The South
Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, Vol. XVIII, (Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins Co.,
1917), p. 147. John Berwick was brother to Simon Berwick. He was a member of the general assembly from Christ
Church Parrish and a commissioner of confiscated estates. His death was reported by the SC Weekly Gazette on
Friday, Feb. 6, 1784; Mabel L. Webber (ed.), “Josiah Smith’s Diary, 1780-1781,” The South Carolina Historical
and Genealogical Magazine, Vol. XXXIII, (Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1932), p. 100. He was a
prisoner listed by the British as being on parole November 25, 1780.
Joseph W. Barnwell, “Garth Correspondence,” The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, Vol.
XXX, (Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1929), p. 225. Quote from magazine’s footnote: “Charles
Elliott born Aug. 17
, 1737. Married 1
, Jane Stanyarne; 2
Ann. Ferguson. One of the unaminous (sic.) 26 who
approved the Massachusetts ‘factious’ letter, buried Jan. 18
, 1781.”
Henry A.M. Smith, “Historical Notes: The Grave of Col. William Washington,” The South Carolina Historical
and Genealogical Magazine, Vol. XXXI, (Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1930), p. 20.
Mabel L. Webber (ed.), “Death Notices from the South Carolina and American General Gazette, and its
Continuation of the Royal Gazette,” The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, Vol. XVII,
(Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1916), p. 157.
Caroline T. Moore, Abtracts of the Wills of the State of South Carolina, 1760-1784, (Columbia, South Carolina:
The R.L. Bryan Co., 1969), pp. 333-334.
Albert Bruce Pruitt, Spartanburg County/District South Carolina: Deed Abstracts Books A-T 1785-1827 (1752-
1827), (Easley, South Carolina: Southern Historical Press, Inc., 1988), p. 282.
Spartanburg County Register of Deeds, Book I, pp. 501-502.

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“Dec. 13: Report on petition of William Wofford, ironmaster of Burke County,” 1786,
<>, North Carolina State Records. Handwritten petition as follows: “To the General
Assembly of the State of North Carolina, The Humble Petition of William Wofford of the Turkey-Cove, in Burke-
County, Iron-Master, Sheweth, That your Petitioner in the Month of March, in the Year of Our Lord 1780,
Purchased the (illegible) Turkey-Cove and the Land adjacent called the Slime-Kilns, at a Very high price, with an
intention to Breif (sic.) and Carry on a Compleat (sic.) Set of Iron-Works; being at that time in Partnership with
Gentlemen of the State of South-Carolina, who were very able, and had high Ideas of that Branch of Buisness (sic.).
But unfortunately, by the Reduction of Charlestown &c they are all dead, by which means, Together with your
Petitioner’s Own Iron-Works being burned down by the Enemy, and other (illegible) by the War, (illegible) you
Petitioner unable to Carry on that Expensive, but Useful Branch of Buisness (sic.); and the Purchase as aforesaid no
his chiefly Useless. Your Petitioner apprehends that the best means that he can now think of to Obtain Partners is to
Obtain a Quantity of Lands; and as the Taxes Consequently to defray the Expences (sic.) of the late Unatural (sic.)
War, must be Considerable, Your Petitioner is not able to pay the Taxes for such Barren and Useless lands to the
Citizens in General, as Your Petitioner does hereby Nominate That your Petitioner informs your Honourable (sic.)
Body that the lands he hereby Means to Pray for, for the Use aforesaid is not fit for Culture, and great Part of it
unacceptable by Rocks and Mountains. Threfore, Your petitioner Prays that You will Grant him Ten Thousand
Acres, or what Quantity you may see fit to Grant, Clear of Taxes as long as an Iron Works shall be kept up by Your
Petitioner or (illegible). Your Petitioner apprehends that a Grant Similar to what he hereby (illegible) prays for is of
no (illegible), or a Very inconsiderable one to the State; and if an Iron-Works should be there Erected, would be of
great benefit to the Publick (sic.) Individually; and be the means of bringing and dispersing Cash and Trade in our
Remote Parts. Therefore if your Honourable (sic.) Body Veiws (sic.) it in that Way of Usefulness, and that the
Granting such a Quanity of lands on such Conditions, will be but a Small Expence (sic.) to the State, which will be
overbalanced by the good to the Publick (sic.) &c. For any similar (sic.) Grant Your Petitioner, as in Duty Bound
will ever Pray. November the 24
, 1786. William Wofford.”
Dr. James L. Reid (ed.), Upper South Carolina Genealogy & History, Vol. XXI, No. 2 (Spartanburg, South
Carolina: The Piedmont Historical Society, 2007), p. 75.
Columbian Herald, July 14, 1788, p. 1, col. 2. Ad reads, emphasis theirs: “ALSO, One undivided moiety or half
share of a tract of Land, containing 300 acres, whereon William Woofford (sic.) formerly resided, and on which Iron
Works were erected, and in situated on both sides of Lawson’s fork of Pacolet river, including a large Shoal and
Mill Seat. ALSO, One undivided moiety or half share of Eight other Tracts of LAND in the vicinity of the aforesaid
Iron Works, viz. 1 Containing 450 acres, more or less; 2 Containing 650, more or less; 3 Containing 200, more or
less; 4 Containing 300, more or less; 5 Containing 400, more or less; 6 Containing 300, more or less; 7 Containing
150, more or less; 8 Containing 211, more or less. The titles and boundaries of each tract may be known at my
Office. Conditions and farther particulars will be declared at the Sale. At the same time and place will also be Sold
. . .”
John Drayton, A View of South-Carolina, as Respects Her Natural and Civil Concerns, (Charleston, South
Carolina: W.P. Young, 1802), p. 151. Quote from book: “In Spartanburgh (sic.) district, worked by the waters of
middle Tiger (sic.) River, a set of iron works on a smaller scale is situated, belonging to Messrs. William & Soliman
(sic.) Hill.”
The Carolina Spartan, June 14, 1855, Vol. 12, #16, p. 3, col.3. All the land and assets of the Bivingsville Cotton
Manufacturing Company (it occupied the area once Buffington’s Iron Works) was advertised for sale by the sheriff
on June 14, 1855. Included was the foundry and the machine shop; June 14, 1855, Vol. 12, #25, p. 3, col.3. John
Bomar (successful bidder) on August 16, 1855, advertised the property for rent. It included a “cupola furnace.”
The Carolina Spartan, November 4, 1858, Vol. 15, #37, pg. 3, col. 2; November 11, 1858, Vol. 15, #38, p. 3, col.
2; November 18, 1858, Vol. 15, #39, p. 3, col.3; November 25, Vol. 15, #40, p. 3, col. 1; December 2, 1858, Vol.
15, #41, p. 3, col. 3; and December 23, 1858, Vol. 15, #44, p. 3, col. 3. John Brooks ran the following advertisement
in The Carolina Spartan (emphasis theirs): “BIVINGSVILLE CUPOLA FURNACE, the subscriber has rented the
above establishment, and is now already for business. Machinery of all descriptions for Factories, Molases Mills,

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&c, made to order. Particular attention will be given to fitting up machinery. I respectfully solicit a share of
patronage from my old friends in extending my business at the Furance. J. Brooks.”
J.D.B. DeBow, DeBow’s Review: Industrial Resources, Vol. VII, Nos. I & II, January/February 1862, p. 332, , (July 15, 2009). There appears a short overview of the inhabitants and resources of
the mill at Bivingsville operated by John Bomar. It mentions the Cupola Furnace. Quote from book, emphasis his:
“South Carolina. Spartanburg—The firm of John Bomar & Co. now own what was formerly called the Bivingsville
Cotton Manufacturing Establishment, of about one thousand five hundred spindles, twenty-six looms, wool-carding
machine, with all the necessary preparation; besides, a good machine shop, well fitted up with turning lathes (five in
number), cog cutter, plainer, upright drill, etc. also, grist and flouring mills, blacksmith shops, saw-mill, cupalo (sic.)
furnace, cotton gin, wheat thresher, a good grain farm, on about one thousand four hundred acres of land, well
improved in good buildings and operators’ houses—all forming a very pretty little village of about one hundred and
fifty inhabitants. This location is on Lawson’s Fork creek, a bold stream of the Packolet (sic.) river one and a half
miles from the Spartanburg and Union railroad, and six miles east of Spartanburg village. The water privilege is
hardly equaled in the state, having two very superior water-falls, in either of which the water, by a short canal, will
rise to an elevation of thirty to forty feet—all the buildings can be placed beyond the reach of high-water mark
(entirely safe). The upper water-fall is so formed by nature as to need no dam, and the water cannot by any
improvement on it be retarded from flowing down the stream in ten or twenty minutes at a time; the same may be
said of the lower shoal, they are about five or six hundred yards apart—water entirely sufficient to operate extensive
machinery, both in cotton and wool, each being at a separate place, very convenient to each other. These privileges,
if improved to their capability, are sufficient to turn off from one hundred and fifty to two hundred thousand dollars
worth of goods per annum, and sustain a population of five to six hundred inhabitants. The sufficiency of these
would tell well for the people of the Southern Confederacy, but as it now stands the improvements are very limited,
and operation equally so, owing, in part, to the great difficulty of getting oil suitable (fine oils); also, card clothing
and other incidentals which are not made South, and we fear will, eventually, check our operations down to a low
figure. Winter strained sperm, parafine (sic.) and kerosene oils, are all that is about suitable—any oils that are fine
and clear of gum.”
Caveat: Endnotes #2 and #3 attribute the name of Lawson’s Fork Creek to Hugh or Roger Lawson. Most all
writers have naturally felt that Lawson’s Fork Creek was named for early settlers by the name of Lawson. That
honor has generally been placed on Roger and/or Hugh Lawson
previously set forth in these end notes. Most
claims were based on the two previously cited grants; and, an uncited petition ca. 1755 to the Government at North
Carolina seeking assistance against the Indians from inhabitants of this area. Roger Lawson and Hugh Lawson had
signed it. However, the claims are shaky
if not refuted by the following. My argument proceeds on the fact that to
date no other grants or transfers have been located associating Roger or Hugh Lawson with Lawson’s Fork Creek;
and, the plats for the grants they did receive no longer seem to exist. The “shucks” were empty when documents
were transferred from Anson County, NC to the NC State Archives. Those references cited previously in these
endnotes do not support the claim because: (1) Charles Moore received land in 1763 (SC Archives Series S213184,
Vol. 7, Pg. 307, Item 3). His plat is dated February 16, 1763 and places the land on Tyger Creek. To confuse
matters it states that the land is on Tyger Creek formerly called Lawson’s Creek. His neighbor is Roger Lawson. (2)
Hugh Lawson had a grant undated (File 937, Mars id., NC Archives) locating land off Broad River on
a creek named Lawson’s Creek. However, Lawson’s Fork is off Pacolet River and Tyger River is off Broad River.
(3) It appears Hugh Lawson sold his land 4-21-1777 (N-5, 500-501, South Carolina Deed Abstracts, 1783-1788,
Brent H. Holcomb, 1996). It is identified as a grant to Hugh Lawson 2-23-1754 consisting of 600 acres. At the time
of sale in 1777 it was bounded by Charles Moore and Roger Lawson. It is also identified as being on the south side
of Broad River on Lawson’s Creek, a branch of Tyger River. (4) Finally Roger Lawson of Halifax Dist. Ga. (Vol. 2,
Pg. 156-158, Mecklenburg County Deeds) sold 1,000 acres to Charles Moore. It is identified as Roger Lawson’s
grant of February 23, 1754. But we note that his original grant (There is a record of two; each are dated February 23,
1754. They each contain a word for word description, location, and metes and bounds. Secretary of State Land, Land
Grant Record Book, 1693-1960, S.108.160.3, Vol. 10, Pg. 40, Roger Lawson and Secretary of State, Land Grant
Record Book, 1693-1960, S.108.160.1, Book 1, Pg. 99, Roger Lawson) was only 600 acres. Acquisition of the extra
400 acres is not documented. It is identified as on Lawson’s Creek. The conclusion is Roger and Hugh Lawson were
centered around Tyger River not Pacolet River; or, Lawson’s Fork.

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